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Britene forlater Philadelphia

Britene forlater Philadelphia

18. juni 1778, etter nesten ni måneders okkupasjon, evakuerte 15.000 britiske tropper under general Sir Henry Clinton Philadelphia, den tidligere amerikanske hovedstaden.

Britene hadde erobret Philadelphia 26. september 1777, etter nederlag av general George Washington i slaget ved Brandywine og slaget ved skyene. Britiske general William Howe hadde gjort Philadelphia, sete for den kontinentale kongressen, til fokus for kampanjen, men Patriot -regjeringen hadde fratatt ham den avgjørende seieren han håpet på ved å flytte operasjonen til det sikrere stedet i York en uke før byen ble tatt.

Mens Howe og det britiske offiserskorpset tilbrakte vinteren med å nyte luksusen i Filadelfias fineste hjem, frøs den kontinentale hæren og led fryktelig deprivasjon i Valley Forge. Heldigvis for Patriots, en infusjon av dyktige europeiske strateger, inkludert den prøyssiske baronen von Steuben; franskmennene Marquis de Lafayette og Johann, Baron de Kalb; og polakkene Thaddeus Kosciuszko og Casimir, grev Pulaski, hjalp Washington med å opprette en godt boret, profesjonell styrke som var i stand til å bekjempe britene.

Den britiske posisjonen i Philadelphia ble uholdbar etter Frankrikes inntog i krigen på amerikanernes side. For å unngå den franske flåten ble general Clinton tvunget til å lede sin britisk-hessiske styrke til New York City til lands. Lojalister i byen seilte nedover Delaware -elven for å unnslippe Patriots, som returnerte til Philadelphia dagen etter den britiske avreisen. USAs general Benedict Arnold, som ledet styrken som tok tilbake byen uten blodsutgytelse, ble utnevnt til militærguvernør. 24. juni kom den kontinentale kongressen tilbake til byen fra sine midlertidige kvartaler i York, Pennsylvania.


Disse 10 hauntingly vakre forlatte herregårdene har de villeste bakgrunnshistoriene

Spoiler -varsel: Det er noen skumle ting som venter. Men hvis du finner deg selv nysgjerrig på historiene bak noen av verdens vakreste forlatte herskapshus, har du kommet til rett sted.

Bare hva er det om smuldrende bygninger, ofte tidligere noen av de dyreste husene i verden som en gang tilhørte noen av verdens rikeste mennesker, som er så overbevisende? Vi innrømmer at det er et snev av schadenfreude i å oppdage deres bortgang og mdash, men vi mistenker at det er noe dypere som skjer også. Kanskje representerer disse ruinene en fysisk legemliggjøring av den delikate balansen mellom utholdenhet og dødelighet som vi alle står overfor som mennesker, og som treffer en lignende akkord som de fantasifulle gotiske vekkelsens ruiner begunstiget av landskapsarkitekter fra 1700-tallet som William Kent og Batty Langley.

Selv om du bare blir tiltrukket av dem for deres skumle historie, kan disse 10 forlatte herskapshusene og mdash fra nedlagte Gilded Age -herskapshus i Amerika forfalle ruiner av diktatorstorhet rundt om i verden og mdashare er fryktelig fascinerende. Tenk på deg selv advart.

Plassert mellom levende eiketrær på Georgia Cumberland Island sitter Dungeness Mansion, eller det som er igjen av det uansett. Begrunnelsen var hjemsted for mange betydningsfulle skikkelser i amerikansk historie, inkludert den britiske nybyggeren James Oglethorpe, som bygde en jakthytte der på 1730 -tallet, revolusjonskrigshelten Nathanael Greene og Thomas Carnegie (bror til Andrew), hvis familie bygde et nytt herskapshus på stedet på 1880 -tallet.

Carnegies flyttet ut av Dungeness i 1925, lenge før herskapshuset ble ødelagt av brann i 1959. I dag vedlikeholdes ruinene og eiendommen av National Park Service som en del av Cumberland Island National Seashore.

Dette gotiske vekkelsesprioryet, designet av James Gillespie Graham i 1820 og med tårn i hvert hjørne, er kanskje overraskende og mdashone av de bedre gjenværende eksemplene på neo-gotisk arkitektur fra 1800-tallet i Skottland. Med tanke på at den ikke har vært okkupert siden 1980 -tallet, har bygningen forfalt alvorlig. Det er oppført som "i fare" av Scottish Civic Trust.

Denne nyklassisistiske bedøveren har en tragisk forbindelse til senkingen av Titanic. Designet av arkitekt Horace Trumbauer og bygget mellom 1897-1900 for industrimann og Titanic investor Peter A.B. Widener, Lynnewood Hall er de største herskapshusene i Gilded Age i Philadelphia -området. Lynnewood Hall var en gang overdådig dekorert med persiske tepper, silke- og fløyelsmøbler og en av de fineste kunstsamlingene i Amerika, og har falt langt fra sine glansdager.

Widener døde i 1915 etter døden til en av sønnene og barnebarna, som døde da Titanic sank i 1912. Herregården har vært ledig, for det meste siden 1950 -tallet.

En gang en manifestasjon av en diktators grådighet, er Bamboo Palace nå et øde gjemmested og kan betraktes som et advarselsskilt for ondsinnede ledere. (Ikke at de ville ta det i betraktning.) Da det var hjemmet til president Mobutu Sese Seko fra Zaire, var Bamboo Palace utstyrt med alle ekstravagante trøster man kan drømme seg til, inkludert en rullebane som kunne romme Concorde for da Mombutu ønsket å shoppe. i Paris.

Hook End Manor ble opprinnelig bygget på 1500 -tallet for biskopen i Reading, og har ledet et ganske musikalsk, om det er hjemsøkt liv. Blues-rock-vokalist og gitarist Alvin Lee kjøpte huset på 1970-tallet og la til et innspillingsstudio. Pink Floyds David Gilmour kjøpte huset i 1980 og spilte inn musikk der før han solgte det i 1987. Det har siden skiftet hender flere ganger gjennom tiårene, alltid eid av produksjonsstudioer. Huset har stått forlatt siden 2017.

De sier at katter har ni liv og mdashhow om herskapshus? Denne italienske renessansen Revival one ble bygget i 1912 av James H. Dooley i Virginia Blue Ridge -fjellene. Tragisk nok fikk han og kona Sallie ikke nyte sommerhuset sitt lenge: Begge døde henholdsvis 10 og 15 år etter at det ble bygget.


Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia

På midten av 1640-tallet ble kolonien New Sweden nesten kastet ut av lenapene på grunn av kolonistenes mangel på handelsvarer og dårlig håndtering av kolonien av deres guvernør, Johan Printz. Printz hadde tjent det svenske militæret i tretti års krig før dronning Christina utnevnte ham til den tredje guvernøren i Nye Sverige. Printz førte først kolonien til velstand ved å doble befolkningen, øke handelen med Lenape, bygge Fort Nya Elfsborg og flytte sentrum av New Sweden -kolonien til Fort New Gothenburg på Tinicum Island. I 1647 klarte Printz ikke å holde tritt med den nederlandske konkurranseutvidelsen i området, og han hadde ikke nok varer til å bytte ut Lenape for pelsverk. Krig med Danmark forhindret Sverige i å sende flere nybyggere eller gjenstander til New Sweden i omtrent seks år, noe som førte til at innbyggerne forlot kolonien for engelske kolonier i Maryland og Virginia. Noen kolonister som ble igjen i New Sweden var kritiske til Printz lederskap, og tjueen signerte til slutt en begjæring som anklaget ham for å ha overskredet maktene hans som guvernør. Printz arresterte lederen for begjærerne og henrettet ham for å ha forsøkt å forårsake opprør. Medlemmer av New Sweden fortsatte å kritisere Printz handlinger, og han trakk seg fra sitt guvernørskap i 1653.

Fort langs elven Delaware

Dette kartet over Delaware-elven, like sør for Philadelphia, av den engelske kartografen William Faden, viser tre amerikansk okkuperte festningsverk som de britiske marineskipene angrep sommeren og høsten 1777. Fort Billings (merket Billings Point nederst til venstre), Fort Mifflin (Fort Island, sentrum) og Fort Mercer (Red Bank, nede til høyre) var kort i stand til å forhindre britiske militære lasteskip i å komme inn i britisk-okkuperte Philadelphia høsten 1777. Mellom hver av de tre primære fortene som forsvarte Philadelphia var chevaux -de-frise eller metallspisser som senket seg ned i elven (merket på dette kartet med pilerader), og forhindrer skip i å trygt reise til Philadelphia, med fare for å punktere skroget. I november 1777 klarte nok britiske skip å omgå chevaux-de-frize for å bombardere Fort Mifflin og støtte britiske landangrep på Fort Billings og Fort Mercer, noe som resulterte i tap av alle tre fortene. (En større versjon av dette kartet er tilgjengelig på Library of Congress.)

Sir John Montresor

Kaptein John Montresor var militæringeniør for britene da han i 1771 ble tildelt å designe festningsverk for Mud Island for å beskytte Philadelphia og havner lenger nord på Delaware River. Montresor, født i Gibraltar, lærte ingeniørpraksis ved å jobbe som lærling hos sin far, som tjente som overingeniør i det britiske militæret. Miniatyrmaleriet fra 1775 av en britisk offiser vist her er identifisert i samlingen av Library and Archives Canada som "muligens" Montresor. Montresor kom til Amerika under syvårskrigen, hvor arbeidet hans gjennom flere kampanjer ga ham rang som kaptein og sjefbrakke-mester for ordonnansen for Amerika. Seks design ble utviklet av Montresor for Mud Island, men begrenset finansiering fra britene og Pennsylvania-forsamlingen betydde at selv det rimeligste alternativet var for kostbart, og bare de østlige og sørlige murene til fortet ble fullført før Montresor forlot prosjektet i 1772. Under den britiske okkupasjonen av Philadelphia i 1777 hjalp Montresor, daværende sjefingeniør for det britiske militæret, med å angripe og ødelegge det amerikansk kontrollerte fortet Mud Island.

Kart over Mud Island

Mud Island var en av flere små øyer i Delaware -elven, sørvest for Philadelphia, som hadde myrlendt land, var utsatt for flom og hadde skiftende landskap på grunn av tidevannet og sesongens vannstand. Den lille mengden brukbart land forhindret bønder eller andre kommersielle virksomheter i å bruke øya, men Pennsylvania -forsamlingen og det britiske militæret så på Mud Island som et anstendig sted for forsvarsverk. Britisk militæringeniør John Montresor begynte å bygge Mud Island Fort (senere Fort Mifflin) i 1771, men økonomiske spørsmål forhindret fullførelsen. Dette kartet over Mud Island ble tegnet i 1788 og viser fortets ufullstendige vegger, bygningssteder og tidevann som dekker en del av øya. I det tjuende århundre begynte landskapet rundt Mud Island å endre form da mudderdriv fra Delaware -elven ble lastet på nærliggende Hog, Carpenters og Province Islands. På 1930 -tallet krevde utviklingen av Philadelphia Municipal Airport flere muddermudder for å flate ut og utvide landet og koble Mud Island til fastlandet.

Fort Mifflin Reenactors

Etter at den amerikanske marinen ga Fort Mifflin til Philadelphia i 1962, begynte en rekke lokale historiske organisasjoner å restaurere fortet og bruke det til pedagogisk programmering. Selv om en rekke grupper og selve byen utviklet programmering i fortet på 1960- og 70 -tallet, har en organisasjon kjent som Fort Mifflin på Delaware vært den eneste operatøren og bevareren av fortet siden 1984. Utdanningsprogrammer og aktiviteter har inkludert camping turer, parader og reenactment -hendelser som henter inspirasjon fra fortets lange historie, som ble bestilt i 1771. En piratdagshendelse, avbildet her 16. august 2014, dreide seg om en iscenesatt konfrontasjon mellom britiske soldater som var stasjonert ved fortet og et band med pirater. Piratene i dette bildet marsjerte britiske fanger østover ut av Fort Mifflin, mot Delaware River (bakgrunn). (Foto av Donald D. Groff for Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia.)

Fort Delaware

Etter hvert som marinevåpenstyrken økte på begynnelsen av det nittende århundre, ble forter nær store havner eller industrisentre ikke sett på som effektive forsvar. Den føderale regjeringen beordret byggingen av et nytt fort på Pea Patch Island, nærmere Delaware Bay, som kunne gi tilstrekkelig beskyttelse til Philadelphia og andre produksjonsbyer som Chester, Pennsylvania og Wilmington, Delaware. Byggingen startet på den første Fort Delaware etter krigen i 1812, men den ble aldri fullført på grunn av en brann i 1831. Byggingen av den andre Fort Delaware, med en annen design og først og fremst konstruert av murstein og stein, startet i 1833. Utviklingen Fort DuPont og Fort Mott på kysten i henholdsvis Delaware og New Jersey i det senere nittende århundre gjorde Fort Delaware til en del av en "defensiv trekant" som beskyttet den øvre Delaware -elven mot angrep. Denne luftbildet over Fort Delaware fra 1944 viser fortet før det ble tatt ut etter andre verdenskrig og gitt til delstaten Delaware i 1947. I dag er det en del av Fort Delaware State Park, tilgjengelig med ferge fra Delaware City.

Fort Miles pistolblokk

Vendt østover mot Atlanterhavet var dette tolv-tommers pistolbatteriet på Fort Miles et av forsvarene som ble brukt for å beskytte inngangen til Delaware Bay mot fiendens skip. Den føderale regjeringen bestilte Fort Miles i 1934 som en del av et større forsøk på å forsvare den østlige kysten mot tyske U-båter, som militære fort lenger opp i Delaware-elven ikke kunne hindre. I tillegg til enetasjes bygninger for soldater og forsyninger, hadde Fort Miles konstruert fire etasjer høye kontrolltårn i nærheten for å oppdage og bestemme posisjonen til potensielle trusler. Da Fort Miles åpnet i nærheten av Lewes, Delaware, i 1941, var det utstyrt med en rekke langdistansevåpen som kunne gjennombore et skips rustning fra tusenvis av meter unna. Restaureringsarbeidet i begynnelsen av det tjueførste århundre åpnet deler av Fort Miles, inkludert denne pistolblokken, for publikum.

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Fort og festningsverk

Fort Mifflin, vist her under et offentlig historisk arrangement i 2014, og lignende fort ved Delaware-elven var en gang en kritisk komponent i forsvaret av Philadelphia. I dag er fort ’s lange historie et grunnlag for pedagogisk programmering og arrangementer som støtter restaurering og vedlikehold. (Foto av Donald D. Groff for Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia.)

Bygget fra det syttende til midten av det tjuende århundre, vokste defensive festningsverk langs den nedre Delaware-elven og bukten regionen i tider med internasjonal og seksjonell omveltning. Som viktige strukturer med så lange historier hjelper fortene med å forklare den politiske, økonomiske og sosiale historien til Greater Philadelphia -regionen.

De tidligste festningsverkene i nedre Delaware -regionen skyldtes de intense økonomiske koloniale rivaliseringene og krigene på begynnelsen av det syttende århundre, da nederlandske, svenske og engelske protestantiske kapitaliststater kjempet mot spanske, portugisiske og franske katolske kongeriker for kontroll over Nordamerika og Vesten Indisk handel og bosetting. Rivaliseringen deres førte til bygging av Fort Nassau, bygget i 1626 av det nederlandske West India Company på østbredden av Delaware (det fremtidige stedet Gloucester City, New Jersey), og Fort Christina, bygget i 1638 av New Sweden Company kl. samløpet av Christina River og Brandywine Creek (det fremtidige stedet i Wilmington, Delaware). Begge festningsverkene fungerte som sentre for pelshandel, og Fort Christina utviklet seg også som et landbruksoppgjør. The New Sweden Company sendte mer enn et dusin ekspedisjoner i løpet av det neste tiåret og tok svensker, finner, nederlendere og tyske nybyggere til Delaware, den gang kjent som South River. Da oberstløytnant Johan Bjornson Printz (1592-1663), en veteran fra tretti årskrigen (1618-48), ble guvernør i New Sweden i 1643, forsterket han kolonien ytterligere med Fort Nya Elfsborg (Elsinboro, Salem County, New Jersey) og Fort New Gothenburg (Tinicum Island, Pennsylvania) oppover elven på vestbredden en kilometer sør for Fort Nassau.

Johan Printz, den tredje guvernøren i New Sweden, hadde tilsyn med byggingen av Fort Nya Elfsborg og Fort New Gothenburg før han trakk seg fra stillingen i 1653. (Historical Society of Pennsylvania)

Det nederlandske vestindiske kompaniet reagerte naturligvis på Nye Sveriges trussel mot New Netherlands kommersielle monopol på South River ved å styrke Fort Nassau, bygge en rekke små, befestede handelsposter over elven og oppføre Fort Casimir der elven møtte Delaware Bay ( senere stedet for New Castle, Delaware). Det nye fortet sto godt under de svenske fortene og lovet å stoppe svenske skip som kommer inn i bukten og elven. Nye Sverige grep fort Fort Casimir, men hadde verken ressurser eller arbeidskraft til å bygge og holde et slikt fort som aggressiv generaldirektør i New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant (1612-72) sendte en tusenmanns ekspedisjon opp til Delaware i 1655 for å ta defensiven på nytt. fungerer og få slutt på Nye Sverige.

Storbritannia seirer over nederlenderne

Den gjenvunne nederlandske innflytelsen på Delaware-elven var kortvarig. I 1664, etter at nederlenderne overgav New Netherland til britene, forlot de stille sine fort ved Delaware. Uten store trusler om kontroll over regionen og marineoverherredømme i bukten og den nærliggende Atlanterhavskysten, bestemte britene seg for ikke å garnisonere befestninger på Delaware. Å bruke penger på fort eller forsvar interesserte heller ikke Quaker-provinsregjeringen i Pennsylvania, opprettet av landstipend til William Penn i 1681. Men på midten av det attende århundre økte imidlertid behovet for festningsverk i Delaware Valley etter hvert som Storbritannia ble låst inne et århundre med kolonial krigføring med Frankrike og Spania.

Større forsvar ble et problem på 1740 -tallet da franske soldater og deres indianer -allierte kom sørover fra Canada til vestlige og sentrale Pennsylvania for å blokkere engelsk vestlig bosetting, mens franske og spanske marinestyrker - spesielt private fra Vest -India - kom opp langs kysten og plyndret flere bosetninger i Delaware Bay og elver. Lokale innbyggere konstruerte en befestet redout i 1748 nær Wilmington, men Quaker -forsamlingen i Philadelphia nektet å skaffe penger til byens befestning. Da franskmennene og spanskene truet Filadelfias handel og forretninger, sluttet mer militante Quaker-kjøpmenn seg med en politisk fraksjon som ikke var Quaker som inkluderte Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) for å finansiere defensive tiltak. Under King George's War (1740-48) brukte Franklin salg av lodd for å finansiere byggingen i 1747-48 av Grand (Association) Battery, en stor tjue-syv-kanons steinmur langs elven ved Philadelphia (Southwark) , og et mindre Society Hill -batteri like oppover. Befestning av nedre Delaware og Philadelphia ble mer presserende under den franske og indiske krigen, 1754-63, spesielt etter at britene ble drevet fra Fort Duquesne i vestlige Pennsylvania og flyttet østover mot Philadelphia. Som svar hadde Franklin tilsyn med byggingen av en rekke festningsverk i Lehigh Valley, hvor han personlig ledet bygningen av Fort Allen (Weissport, Carbon County) i 1755.

Fort Mifflin på Mud Island, som tegnet på dette kartet fra 1788, ble ødelagt av britisk bombardement høsten 1777. (Library of Congress)

Den britiske regjeringen, overbelastet av kontinuerlig krigføring mot franskmennene i Europa, Karibia, Atlanterhavet og Nord -Amerika, forventet at Pennsylvania -forsamlingen skulle bære byrden for å bevæpne Delaware -dalen, særlig befeste Delaware River -tilnærmingene til Philadelphia. For dette formål sendte den britiske hæren militæringeniør kaptein John Montresor (1736-99) for å befeste Mud Island (også kalt Fort Island) ved Delaware-elven nær munningen av elven Schuylkill. Montresor tegnet et lite steinfort og begynte byggingen av en sørlig og østlig mur av gjørmefortet (senere Fort Mifflin). Forverring av forholdet mellom England og hennes nordamerikanske kolonier avbrøt byggingen til 1775, da den kontinentale kongressen møttes i Philadelphia og i økende grad protesterte mot britisk beskatning og handelspolitikk.

1776: Need for Forts Gains Haster

Måneders debatt om hvorvidt Pennsylvania, Philadelphia eller den kontinentale kongressen skulle velge steder og betale for defensive arbeider langs elven nådde et kritisk stadium etter den amerikanske uavhengighetserklæringen. 5. juli 1776 kjøpte den kontinentale kongressen et sted for et fort i Billingsport (Paulsboro), New Jersey. General George Washington (1732-99) spurte oberst Thaddeus Kosciuszko (1746-1817), en dyktig fransk-utdannet polsk/litauisk militæringeniør for å designe fortet, og den kontinentale kongressen ansatte den franske militæringeniøren Philippe DuCoudray (1738-77) å bygge det som et anker for en kjede av rammer av store stokker av jern, kjent som cheveaux-de-frise skal spres over elvekanalene for å forhindre at britiske krigsskip kommer oppover for å angripe Philadelphia. Kongressen godkjente også bygging av Fort Mercer på en høy bløff kjent som Red Bank, Gloucester County, New Jersey.

Det britiske angrepet på Philadelphia på sensommeren og høsten 1777 tvang ferdigstillelse og garnisoning av de tre fortene ved Delaware River. Fort Billings, forsvaret av lokal milits, var den første som falt til den britiske hæren, da brøt britiske marinefartøy chevaux-de-frise og beveget seg sakte oppover mot Mud Island (Fort Mifflin) og Red Bank (Fort Mercer) festningsverk. Britisk marinebombardement av Fort Island, angivelig den tyngste kanonbrannen under revolusjonskrigen, reduserte gjørmefortet (Fort Mifflin) til steinsprut. Forts Mercer og Mifflin ble forlatt 15. november, og den britiske hæren okkuperte Philadelphia.

Angrepet på Fort Mifflin, Fort Mercer og Fort Billings av det britiske militæret høsten 1777 ble kronet på denne innsatsen til et kart av den engelske kartografen William Faden. (Library of Congress)

Revolusjonskrigen markerte siste gang fortene i Philadelphia -regionen forsvarte seg mot en fiendtlig styrke. Likevel ble festningsverk viktige mens Philadelphia tjente fra 1790 til 1800 som nasjonalhovedstad. President Washington og hans statssekretær, Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), presset på for å gjenoppbygge Fort Mifflin og konstruere elveforsvar, spesielt med den økende trusselen om franske og britiske marineinnfall i Delaware under krigene i den franske revolusjonen. Den føderale regjeringen hyret sivilingeniør major Pierre Charles L’Enfant (1754-1825) for å redesigne Fort Mifflin og militæringeniør Anne-Louis de Tousard (1749-1817) for å bygge bastionen. Tousard brukte statlige midler til å kjøpe materiale fra Philadelphia -kjøpmenn og leie lokale tyske, irske og engelske snekkere og murere. Afroamerikanske slaver, mange eid av Tousard, leverte nødvendig arbeidskraft. Fortet fikk navnet Fort Mifflin i 1795 etter Washingtons adjutant-general under krigen, Thomas Mifflin (1744-1800) fra Philadelphia.

Innflytelsen av sjøvåpen

Arbeidet opphørte på Fort Mifflin da den nasjonale hovedstaden forlot Philadelphia i 1800 for Potomac -elven. Noe konstruksjon ble gjenopptatt under krigen i 1812, men Jeffersonian-republikanerne foretrakk å bruke penger på flere midlertidige batterier med tjuefire-punders kanoner på øyer i Delaware-elven og bruke små kanonbåter for å beskytte byen. Videre så det ut til at regionen skulle forsvares med et fort lenger nedover elven fordi Fort Mifflin sto for nær Philadelphia til å gi tilstrekkelig forsvar mot stadig mer langdistanselavvåpen. Den amerikanske regjeringen begynte å se på steder i nærheten av New Castle, Delaware og Pea Patch Island, en stor øy midt i kanalen Delaware River hvor elven møtte bukten. Arbeidet begynte med et fort på Pea Patch Island like etter krigen i 1812. Brann ødela det delvis bygde fortet i 1831, men byggingen gjenopptok i 1833 på et stort steinverk som ble kalt Fort Delaware.

Fort Delaware på Pea Patch Island var en del av “defensive trekanten ” for å beskytte produksjonssentre langs Delaware -elven. (Library of Congress)

Forsvar av regionen ble nødvendig igjen med ankomsten av borgerkrigen. Etter den konfødererte fangsten av Fort Sumter i Charleston, South Carolina, havnen i 1861, krevde USA og Pennsylvania -regjeringene bevæpning av Fort Delaware. De bekymret seg for at en løsrivelsesbevegelse i nærheten i delstaten Delaware og sørlige fylker i New Jersey truet sikkerheten til byene Philadelphia, Chester og Wilmington, som raskt vokste frem som sentre for ammunisjonstilvirkning, pistolstøping og jernkledd skipsbygging. Jernbanesystemet som fraktet tropper og materiell sør for å møte opprørsstyrkene, passerte også gjennom disse byene. Ryktet om bygging av et enormt jernkledd krigsskip fra den konfødererte marinen forstyrret regionen spesielt, og Fort Delaware trengte å montere tunge glattborede våpen og flytende gruver for å stoppe fiendens jernklær fra å angripe Philadelphia. Den føderale regjeringen begynte å bygge et flott ti-pistols batteri på Delaware City-elven (Fort DuPont) for å beskytte Pea Patch Island. Fort Delaware og i mindre grad Fort Mifflin tjente som krigsfanger under hele borgerkrigen. Fort Delaware holdt mer enn 30 000 konfødererte fanger og lokale sørlige sympatisører i det ekstremt usunne, sykdomsrammede Pea Patch Island-anlegget.

De siste tiårene av det nittende århundre ble gullalderen for amerikansk kystfortbygging da USA inngikk keiserlige rivaliseringer med Tyskland, Russland, England, Frankrike, Japan og spesielt Spania, noe som virket som en trussel mot amerikanske interesser på Cuba og Filippinske øyer. Da den føderale regjeringen flyttet til å modernisere og styrke amerikansk sjøkystforsvar, fikk Philadelphia -regionen ytterligere befestning i 1896 med bygging av et batteri på Finn's Point, Pennsville, Salem County, New Jersey. Det nye fortet ble kalt Fort Mott etter borgerkrigen i New Jersey og nasjonalgarden, brigadegeneral Gershom Mott (1882-84), og skapte en defensiv trekant med Forts Delaware og DuPont for å stoppe enhver fiendeflåte før den kunne nå de store produksjonssentrene oppover i Wilmington , Chester og Philadelphia.

Verdenskrig bringer tyngre artilleri

Fortene i Delaware Valley spilte ingen kamprolle under den spansk-amerikanske krigen, men USAs inntreden i første verdenskrig i 1917 ga utsiktene til et større behov for å forsvare regionen ettersom den fortsatte å være et senter for skipsbygging av marine- og handelsskip, ammunisjon og andre krigsvarer. Videre ble regionen en mobiliseringsbinding for at tropper kunne sendes til de europeiske frontene. Forts Mott og DuPont ble garnisonert av artillerienheter. Fort DuPont bygde flere brakker, et sykehus og lagre for å trene og utstyre draftees og huse tropper og materiale bestemt til å kjempe i den store krigen. Imidlertid sto regionen ikke overfor noen reell trussel fra fiendens styrker enn sabotasje av forsvarsindustrier av tyske agenter i New Jersey.

Artilleriet som ble brukt i pistolblokkene på Fort Miles, som lå på Atlanterhavskysten nær Lewes, Delaware, var ment å gjennombore rustningen til fiendens skip tusenvis av meter unna. (Wikimedia Commons)

Trusselen mot regionen var større ved andre verdenskrig, da det japanske angrepet på Pearl Harbor i desember 1941 ga muligheten for langdistanse luftangrep. Eldre, foreldede forter fikk nye formål som steder for luftfartsbatterier, inkludert Fort Mifflin, bemannet av den første afroamerikanske kystartillerienheten. Det ble imidlertid snart klart at den største trusselen mot regionen under andre verdenskrig kom fra kraftige tyske U-båter som torpederte handelsskip og oljetankskip utenfor Jersey- og Delaware-kysten og lurte like ved Delaware Bay og capes for å fange opp skip som kommer ut av Delaware Bay. Som svar flyttet USA alt Delaware River og bay -forsvar til sjøkanten og reiste Fort Miles på Cape Henlopen, nær Lewes, Delaware. Fort Miles inneholdt gigantiske, langdistanse seksten-tommers kanoner og 90 mm luftfartsbatterier. Runde betongobservasjons- og brannkontrolltårn ble konstruert langs Jersey-kysten så langt nord som Sandy Hook og nedover Delaware-kysten til Ocean City, Maryland.

Å finne kystforsvaret stadig lenger borte fra Philadelphia og Delaware-elven under andre verdenskrig vitnet om de økende romlige dimensjonene til moderne krigføring og langdistanseegenskaper for nye våpen. Det antydet også den økende foreldelsen av Greater Philadelphia -regionens historiske fort. Alle fortene i Delaware -elven ble erklært krigsoverskudd etter andre verdenskrig, og gjenværende våpen eller annet militært materiale ble fjernet. Forts Mott, DuPont og Delaware ble gitt til New Jersey og Delaware og ble deler av historiske distrikter og statsparksystemer. Fort DuPont beholdt en nasjonalgarde. Fort Mifflin ble til slutt oppnådd av byen Philadelphia og støttet av et privat Fort Mifflin Society for å bevare et av de mest historiske fortene i amerikansk historie. US Army Corps of Engineers beholdt en tilstedeværelse på stedet. Ingen av fortene fra begynnelsen av det syttende århundre var igjen, men plaketter og monumenter markerte de opprinnelige stedene til Forts Elfsborg, Billings, Mercer, Casimir og Christina. De overlevende strukturene og monumentene og plakettene tjente som påminnelser om den sentrale rollen som fortene spilte i den tidligste historien til Greater Philadelphia -området.

Jeffery M. Dorwart, Professor emeritus i historie, Rutgers University, er forfatter av historiene til Philadelphia Navy Yard Fort Mifflin fra Philadelphia Naval Air Station Wildwood Camden og Cape May Counties, New Jersey Office of Naval Intelligence Ferdinand Eberstadt og James Forrestal. Han er også medforfatter av Elizabeth Haddon Estaugh: Bygging av Quaker Community of Haddonfield, New Jersey, 1701-1762 (Historical Society of Haddonfield, 2013).

Copyright 2015, Rutgers University

Relatert lesing

Dorwart, Jeffery M. “Forgotten Victories: Red Bank, Fort Mercer and the Defense of the Lower Delaware, ” New Jersey ARV (Vinter 2005): 28-37.

_______. Fort Mifflin i Philadelphia: En illustrert historie. En Barra Foundation Book. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

_______. Invasjon og opprør: Sikkerhet, forsvar og krig i Delaware-dalen, 1621-1815. Newark, Del .: University of Delaware Press, 2008.

Grant, Andres G. Fort Mott. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2013.

Jackson, John W. The Pennsylvania Navy, 1775-1781: The Defense of the Delaware. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1974.

Smith, Samuel Stelle. Fight for the Delaware, 1777. Monmouth Beach, N.J.: Philip Frenau Press, 1970.

Stotz, Charles Morse. Outposts of the War for Empire: The French and English in Western Pennsylvania: Their Armies, Their Forts, Their People, 1749-1764. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press for Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, 1985.

Temple Brian. The Union Prison at Fort Delaware: A Perfect Hell on Earth. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland & Company, 2003.

American State Papers: documents, legislative and executive of the Congress of the United States in relation to the public lands, 1789-1838. 5 vols. Washington: Duff Green, 1834.

Lewis, Emanuel Raymond. Seacoast Fortifications of the United States: An Introductory History. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1993.

Snyder, Frank E. and Brian H. Guss. The District: A History of the Philadelphia District U.S, Army Corps of Engineers 1866-1971. Philadelphia, 1974.

Places to Visit

Fort Allen Well, 112 Franklin Street Rear, Weissport, Pa.

Fort Billings Park, Delaware Avenue, Paulsboro, N.J.

Fort Delaware State Park, ferry boat to Pea Patch Island from Delaware City, New Castle County, Del.

Fort DuPont, State Park, Delaware City, Del.

Fort Mercer (Red Bank Battlefield and Whitall House), 100 Hessian Avenue, National Park. Gloucester County, N.J.

Fort Mifflin, Hog Island Road, Philadelphia.

Fort Miles, Cape Henlopen State Park, Lewes, Del.

Grand (Association) Battery historical marker, Columbus Boulevard and Washington Avenue, Philadelphia.


3. Old Inquirer Building

Status: Soon to be occupied NOTES

The former headquarters for the Philadelphia Inquirer has sat vacant for years, though not without the efforts of local developers and the city. When the 340-foot-tall building was built in 1924 and designed in the Beaux-Arts style by Rankin, Kellogg & Crane, it was the tallest building north of City Hall. After the newspaper moved out in 2011-12, developer Bart Blatstein said he planned to turn it into a hotel. But there are rumors that the city has been eyeing the building for the police’s future headquarters.

Courtesy of Flickr/Ian Freimuth


British abandon Philadelphia - HISTORY

T he winter of 1777-8 was the low point of America's struggle for independence. The troubles began the previous August when the British fleet unloaded a force of Redcoats at the top of the Chesapeake Bay with the objective of capturing the American capital at Philadelphia. The Americans were routed by the British at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, leaving Philadelphia undefended. Members of the Continental Congress fled the city: first to Lancaster and then to York where they reestablished the capital. The British entered Philadelphia on September 26.

The British attack Philadelphia
from the Chesapeake Bay
The Continental Army suffered another defeat at the Battle of Germantown just north of Philadelphia on Oct. 4. General Washington led his weary and demoralized army to Valley Forge a few miles away where they would camp for the winter and prepare for battle with the return of warm weather.

Conditions in the camp were horrendous. Forced to live in damp, crowded quarters, Washington's army of approximately 12,000 suffered from a lack of adequate clothing and food. Diseases such as typhoid, dysentery, typhus and pneumonia ran rampant. An estimated 2,000 died. Morale plummeted.

General Washington was in despair as he watched his army disintegrate. However, as time progressed, a transformation occurred. Under Washington's inspired leadership, conditions improved: more food, equipment and new recruits reached the camp lifting spirits. Most importantly, the training efforts of Baron von Steuben increased discipline and reinvigorated pride among the troops. A former member of the General Staff of the Prussian Army, Steuben arrived in camp in February bearing a letter of introduction from Benjamin Franklin whom he had met in Paris

Washington immediately assigned the seasoned soldier the task of training his army. Drilling started immediately. From dawn to dusk individual soldiers, companies, regiments and battalions were incessantly schooled in the art of war. What had been a ragtag and undisciplined collection of individuals became a cohesive fighting force.

Out of this terrible winter emerged a new Army, confident and ready to do battle. On June 19, 1778 the British abandoned Philadelphia and marched back to New York City. Washington led his Continental Army in pursuit. The subsequent battle at Monmouth, New Jersey ended in a draw. The War for Independence would last another five years, but a major victory of the spirit had been won during the winter at Valley Forge.

The Chevalier de Pontgibaud was born to the French nobility but ran afoul of the law and ended up in prison. He escaped and made his way to America where he volunteered for service in the Continental Army. He arrived at Valley Forge in December 1777 and published his observations after the war:

"That celebrated man - an ambassador who amused himself with science, which he adroitly made to assist him in his diplomatic work - said, when some friends came to Passy to condole with him on the fall of Philadelphia: 'You are mistaken it is not the British army that has taken Philadelphia, but Philadelphia that has taken the British army.' The cunning old diplomatist was right. The capital of Pennsylvania had already done for the British what Capua did in a few months for the soldiers of Hannibal. The Americans the 'insurgents' as they were called - camped at Valley Forge the British officers, who were in the city, gave themselves up to pleasure there were continual balls and other amusements the troops were idle and enervated by inaction, and the generals undertook nothing all the winter.

Soon I came in sight of the camp. My imagination had pictured an army with uniforms, the glitter of arms, standards, etc., in short, military pomp of all sorts Instead of the imposing spectacle I expected, I saw, grouped together or standing alone, a few militiamen, poorly clad, and for the most part without shoes - many of them badly armed, but all well supplied with provisions, and I noticed that tea and sugar formed part of their rations. I did not then know that this was not unusual, and I laughed, for it made me think of the recruiting sergeants on the Quai de la Ferraille at Paris, who say to the yokels, 'You will want for nothing when you are in the regiment, but if bread should run short you must not mind eating cakes.' Here the soldiers had tea and sugar.

General von Steuben trains
American troops at Valley Forge

In passing through the camp I also noticed soldiers wearing cotton nightcaps under their hats, and some having for cloaks or greatcoats coarse woolen blankets, exactly like those provided for the patients in our French hospitals. I learned afterwards that these were the officers and generals.

Such, in strict truth, was, at the time I came amongst them, the appearance of this armed mob, the leader of whom was the man who has rendered the name of Washington famous such were the colonists - unskilled warriors who learned in a few years how to conquer the finest troops that England could send against them. Such also, at the beginning of the War of Independence, was the state of want in the insurgent army, and such was the scarcity of money, and the poverty of that government, now so rich, powerful, and prosperous, that its notes, called Continental paper money, were nearly valueless. & quot

Referanser:
This eyewitness account was first published in Chevalier de Pontgibaud (Robert Douglas, ed.) A French Volunteer of the War of Independence (1898) republished in Commager, Henry Steele and Allan Nevins, The Heritage of America (1939) Reed, John F. Valley Forge, Crucible of Victory (1969).


Failure in the South

On June 17, 1775, Clinton took part in the bloody British victory at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Initially tasked with providing reserves to Howe, he later crossed to Charlestown and worked to rally the dispirited British troops. In October, Howe replaced Gage as commander of British troops in America and Clinton was appointed as his second-in-command with the temporary rank of lieutenant general. The following spring, Howe dispatched Clinton south to assess military opportunities in the Carolinas. While he was away, American troops emplaced guns on Dorchester Heights in Boston, which compelled Howe to evacuate the city. After some delays, Clinton met a fleet under Commodore Sir Peter Parker, and the two resolved to attack Charleston, South Carolina.

Landing Clinton's troops on Long Island, near Charleston, Parker hoped the infantry could aid in defeating the coastal defenses while he attacked from the sea. Moving forward on June 28, 1776, Clinton's men were unable to render assistance as they were halted by swamps and deep channels. Parker's naval attack was repulsed with heavy casualties and both he and Clinton withdrew. Sailing north, they joined Howe's main army for the assault on New York. Crossing to Long Island from the camp on Staten Island, Clinton surveyed the American positions in the area and devised the British plans for the upcoming battle.


Why the British Abandoned Impeachment

The decline of impeachment in Britain coincided with the rise of another, more effective process by which high officials there could be held accountable.

Impeachment was developed in medieval England as a way to discipline the king’s ministers and other high officials. The framers of the U.S. Constitution took that idea and applied it to presidents, judges and other federal leaders.

That tool was in use, and in question, during the second impeachment trial of Donald Trump. Republicans raised questions about both the constitutionality and the overall purpose of impeachment proceedings against a person who no longer holds office.

Democrats responded that the framers expected impeachment to be available as a way to deliver consequences to a former official, and that refusing to convict Trump could open the door to future presidential abuses of power.

An impeachment case that was active in Britain while the framers were writing the Constitution in Philadelphia helped inform the new American government structure. But the outcome of that case – and that of another impeachment trial a decade later – signaled the end of impeachment’s usefulness in Britain, though the British system of government offered another way to hold officials accountable.

Impeachment in Britain

During the 17th century, the English Parliament used impeachment repeatedly against the royal favorites of King Charles I. One, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, went to the gallows in 1641 for subverting the laws and attempting to raise an Irish army to subdue the king’s opponents in England. Although kings couldn’t be impeached, Parliament eventually tried King Charles I for treason too, sentencing him to death by public beheading on Jan. 30, 1649.

A century later, impeachment no longer carried a risk of execution, but in 1786 the House of Commons launched what would become the most famous – and longest – impeachment trial in British history.

The lower house of Parliament, the House of Commons, impeached Warren Hastings, who had retired as governor-general of British India and was back in England, for corruption and mismanagement. That action provides a direct answer to one current legal question: The charges were based on what Hastings had done in India, making clear that a former official could be impeached and tried, even though he was no longer in office.

Future U.S. president John Adams, who was in London at the time, predicted in a letter to fellow founder John Jay that although Hastings deserved to be convicted, the proceedings would likely end with his acquittal. Nevertheless, Adams and Jay were among those who supported the new U.S. Constitution, whose drafters in 1787 included impeachment, even though that method of accountability was close to disappearing from Britain.

Nearing the end of its usefulness

The trial of Hastings, in Parliament’s upper house, the House of Lords, didn’t actually begin until 1788, and took seven years to conclude. The prosecution included Edmund Burke, one of the most gifted orators of the age. Eventually, though, the House of Lords proved Adams right, acquitting Hastings in 1795.

This stunning loss could have been the death knell for impeachment in Great Britain, but Hastings was not the last British political figure to be impeached. That dubious honor goes to Henry Dundas, Lord Melville, Scottish first lord of the admiralty, who was charged in 1806 with misappropriating public money. Dundas was widely assumed to be guilty, but, as with Hastings, the House of Lords voted to acquit.

These examples showed that impeachment, even when the accused government official had done the things that he was accused of doing, was a blunt, cumbersome weapon. With both Hastings and Dundas, the House of Commons was willing to act, but the House of Lords – which was (and is) not an elected body and therefore less responsive to popular opinion – refused to go along. As a tool for checking the actions of ministers and other political appointees, impeachment no longer worked, and it fell out of use.

A new method of accountability

The decline of impeachment in Britain coincided with the rise of another, more effective process by which high officials there could be held accountable.

British prime ministers answer to Parliament, doing so literally during the now-weekly question time in the House of Commons. Leaders who for whatever reason lose the support of a simple majority in the lower house, including through a vote of no confidence, can be forced to resign. The last time a British prime minister lost a vote of no confidence was in 1979, when the minority Labour government of James Callaghan was defeated.

If a prime minister receives a vote of no confidence, there is an alternative to resignation: call an election for a new Parliament, which is what Callaghan did, and let the people decide whether the current government gets to stay or has to go. If the prime minister’s party loses, he or she is generally out, and the leader of the party with the new majority takes over. In 1979, the defeat of Callaghan and the Labour Party paved the way for the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher, Britain’s first female prime minister.

This provides an immediate course of action for those who oppose a British government for any reason, including allegations of official wrongdoing, and delivers a rapid decision.

In the United States, by contrast, a president can be accused of corruption or even sedition but face no real consequences, so long as one more than a third of the Senate declines to convict.

Now that Trump has been acquitted, then the Constitution’s bulwark against presidential malfeasance could become yet another mechanism of minority government.

Another path

If impeachment is rendered useless in the U.S., as it was in Britain two centuries ago, the Constitution does offer another remedy: Section 3 of the 14th Amendment.

Originally intended to prevent former Confederates from returning to power after the Civil War, Section 3 bars people who have “engaged in insurrection or rebellion” against the U.S. from serving in state or federal governments, including in Congress or as president or vice president.

The language in the amendment could justify barring Trump from future office – and the resolution to do so may require only a majority vote in both houses of Congress, though enforcement would likely also need a ruling from a judge.

Denne artikkelen er publisert på nytt fra The Conversation under en Creative Commons -lisens. Les den opprinnelige artikkelen.


British abandon Philadelphia - HISTORY

Last Update: 13/MAY/2010 Compiled by Pete Payette - 2010 American Forts Network

Camp Bloomfield
(1814), Kennett Square
A PA state militia camp.

Camp Wayne (1)
(1861), West Chester
A Civil War training camp.

Camp Gaines
(1814), Trainer
A PA state militia camp, originally known as Camp Marcus Hook . It was renamed Fort Snyder before it was abandoned.

Fort Mecoponacka
(1641 - unknown), Upland
A minor Swedish defense near Chester , 14 miles from Fort Christina in Wilmington , DE.

Fort Nya (New) Gottenburg
(1643 - 1655), Essington
A four-gun log fort on Tinicum Island built by the Swedes after Fort Elfsborg in Salem , NJ. Memorial at Governor Printz Park. This was the first white settlement in the state. The fort burned down in 1645, but was rebuilt. The Swedish governor built his mansion (Printz Hall) here in 1645, and the complex was the capital of New Sweden until 1655. It was probably destroyed by the Dutch.

Darby Creek Battery
(1777), Essington
A Patriot battery at the mouth of Darby Creek.

Fort Mifflin
(Fort Mifflin on the Delaware Official Website)
(Olde Fort Mifflin Historical Society)
(1772 - 1962, intermittent), Philadelphia FORT WIKI
Originally called Fort Island Battery , and also known as Mud Island Fort until construction was hastily finished in 1777 by Patriot forces. It was a palisaded earthen fort, roughly star-shaped, with three blockhouses and a water battery. The Patriots had built two lines of chevaux-de-frise in the Delaware River an upper line between Hog Island and a sandbar in the middle channel, and a lower line between Billings Island and Fort Billings, NJ. The British captured the fort, and also Fort Billings, in 1777 and virtually destroyed them. The Patriots escaped to Fort Mercer, NJ across the river at Red Bank until that fort also fell. The British had built seige batteries at Webb's Ferry, Mingo Creek, and five on Province Island to subdue the fort. The British then built several new outworks on Carpenter's Island to help defend the fort from Patriot recapture. The fort was rebuilt in 1779 after the British left Philadelphia in 1778. The name "Mud Island Fort" was reused in official reports until the name "Fort Mifflin" became official again in 1795, because Generals Washington and Mifflin had a falling out after the city fell to the British. Fort Mifflin had three new wooden blockhouses, barracks, Officers' quarters, magazines, surrounded by a palisade. An eight-gun Water Battery was also built. Fort Mifflin was rebuilt again from 1794 - 98 using Pierre L'Enfants plans as a 29-gun bastioned work, and repaired in 1808. It was virtually abandoned from 1815 - 1837. Fort Mifflin was used as a military prison during the Civil War. A nine-gun exterior battery (aka High Battery ) was built in 1871 - 1876, probably armed in the 1880's. A six-gun Mortar Battery was built in 1872 - 1876, but was never finished or armed. In 1871 the old fort's demilune was rebuilt for three new guns and a magazine, and the fort's parapet was reworked for five new guns and two magazines. A mine casemate was built within the fort in 1875, but was never used. The fort remained armed until 1904. The old fort was partially dismantled in 1904 but was restored from the original plans in 1930. A Naval Ammunition Depot (1918-1960) was built nearby in WWI, in use until transferred to the state with the old fort. Four anti-aircraft gunblocks (3-inch or 90mm ?) were built inside the old fort during WWII (undetermined if guns actually emplaced). The marsh islands around the area were filled-in during the 1940's and 1950's to build the airport and I-95. No trace remains of the 1777 British seige batteries and outworks. The 1870's exterior batteries still exist, and are the best remaining examples of the type on the East Coast that are publicly accessible. Admission fee.
See also The Seige of Fort Mifflin from US History.org || PA state marker

During World War I (1918), two-gun anti-aircraft batteries (3-inch) were located at Marcus Hook at the American International Ship Building Company on Hog Island and on a site across the Schuylkill River from the Schuylkill Arsenal (no guns mounted). Another two-gun AA battery (3-inch) was also built at the Cities Services Oil Company (CITGO) on Petty (Petty's) Island in Camden , NJ, but no guns were ever mounted there. Troops from Fort Mott, NJ, were also assigned to guard the Cramp Ship Building yard, on Norris Street, from December 1917 to March 1918. See also Harbor Defenses of the Delaware River on NEW JERSEY page 2

Fort Gaines
(1814), Philadelphia
A temporary six-gun battery built on the Middle Bank sandbar, about 400 yards upriver from Fort Mifflin's wharf. Also known as Battery on (W. Thomas) Davis' Pier . Site was destroyed during dredging operations about 1840.
(some info provided by William Gaines of the Coast Defense Study Group)

Fort Nya (New) Korsholm
(1647 - 1653), Philadelphia
A Swedish palisaded log fort located near the mouth of the Schuylkill River, probably located on Province Island, built on the site of a 1643 Dutch trading post, which was itself originally a small blockhouse built by Puritan traders from Connecticut who were ousted by the Dutch. The Swedish fort was destroyed by Indians. Site now located near the western approach of the Penrose Ave. Bridge.

Fort Beversreede
(1648 - 1650 or 1651), Philadelphia
A Dutch palisaded log fort located along the eastern side of the Schuylkill River in the Passyunk section of town, at the bend of the river above the Penrose Ave. Bridge. It was abandoned after Swedish settlers vandalized the fort several times. The Swedes had built a 30-by-20-foot stockade (aka Printz Stockade ) in the immediate vicinity of the Dutch fort in 1648 to intimidate them.

Fort Vasa
(1646 - unknown), Philadelphia
A Swedish mill protected by two blockhouses, located on the west side of the Schuylkill River, at a place the Indians called Kingsessing , a short distance north of Fort New Korsholm. Also spelled Wasa .

Fort M lndal
(1646 - unknown), Philadelphia
A Swedish water-powered gristmill protected by two blockhouses, located on the eastern side of Cobb's Creek just above the Woodland Ave. Bridge, near Cobbs Creek Parkway and Greenway Ave. Also known as Nya Vasa . The mill itself lasted for several generations.

Fort Wicaco (1)
(1669 - 1677), Philadelphia
A Swedish settlers' log blockhouse located below Society Hill. It was later used as a church until about 1700, when the Gloria Dei (Old Swedes) Church was built on the site at South Christopher Columbus Blvd. (Swanson Street) and Christian Street.

Of interest on Pattison Ave. in Franklin D. Roosevelt Park is the American-Swedish Historical Museum (admission fee). A 1926 replica of the Wicaco Blockhouse was once located on grounds, built for the Sesquicentennial International Exposition by the Swedish Colonial Society of Philadelphia.

Association Battery
(1747 - 1762 ?), Philadelphia
Located on the Delaware River at the foot of Wicaco Lane (later Prime Street or present Washington Ave.), between Swanson Street and Wharton Street, built by Benjamin Franklin's "Associators" volunteer militia. Also known as Fort at Wicaco (2) or the Grand Battery . The massive earth and timber battery originally had 27 guns, and then 50 guns by 1750. It was garrisoned by the provincial militia in 1758 to enforce a trade embargo. At the time, this was the city's only maritime defense. The fort was still depicted on a 1776 map of the city, although it was no longer used as such by that date. The site was later known as the "Battery Grounds" until the U.S. Navy Yard (Southwark) was established here in 1801.

At the foot of Society Hill, on the old Penn Street (present-day I-95) between Pine and Lombard Streets, was the 13-gun Battery at (Anthony) Atwood's Wharf (1748 - 1750's), another "Associator" work.

Philadelphia Defenses of the American Revolution
(1777 - 1781), Philadelphia
British and Hessian forces occupied the city beginning in September 1777.
Fort Penn (2) was the main British work protecting the city from land attack. Probably refers to the line of entrenchments north of present-day downtown.

British palisaded entrenchments and redoubts ran from the mouth of Conoquonoque Creek near Willow Street on the Delaware River, to the "Upper Ferry" on the Schuylkill River, running between present-day Spring Garden Street and Callowhill Street. They were left intact by the British when they evacuated the city in June 1778. Numbered redoubts were (based on period street names and alignments):
#1 , located near Green and Oak Streets on the Delaware River. Near here at the mouth of Frankford Creek a chain was placed across the river to impede Patriot naval attacks on the city.
#2 , located west of North Second and Noble Streets.
#3 , located between North Fifth and Sixth Streets and Noble and Buttonwood Streets.
#4 , located on North Eighth Street between Noble and Buttonwood Streets.
#5 , located on North Tenth Street between Buttonwood and Pleasant Streets.
#6 , located on Buttonwood Street between North 13th Street and North Road (North Broad St.).
#7 , located on North Schuylkill Eighth Street (North 17th ?) between Pennsylvania Ave. and Hamilton Street.
#8 , located on North Schuylkill Fifth Street (North 20th ?) and Pennsylvania Ave..
#9 , located on North Schuylkill Second Street (North 23nd ?) near Callowhill Street.
#10 , located on the Schuylkill River at the "Upper Ferry", near present-day West River Drive and Spring Garden Street (in present-day Fairmont Park).
#11 , unknown
#12 , unknown
#13 , unknown
#14 , unknown
Upper Battery , a four-gun earthwork on the river at Front Street and Girard Ave. to defend the docks against upriver attacks.
Middle Battery (1) , a one-gun work at Christian and Swanson Streets.
Lower Battery , a five-gun work located at the foot of Washington Ave. (Reed and Swanson Streets) to defend the docks against downriver attacks.
An unnamed British two-gun battery located at present-day Roosevelt Park covered Webb's Ferry from Patriot naval attack.

British works covering the land approches to Fort Mifflin were:
#15 (aka Right Battery ), (two guns) located on Carpenter's Island.
#16 (aka Middle Battery (2) ), located on Carpenter's Island 600 yards from Fort Mifflin. Originally two guns, later enlarged for six guns. A mortar battery was in front.
An unnamed British one-gun battery on Province Island, between the Middle and Left Batteries at an old ferry wharf.
#17 (aka Left Battery or Pest House Battery ), located on Province Island at a wharf on Mingo Creek. Originally two guns, later four guns.
#18 , located on Carpenter's Island. Unfinished redoubt to cover road from Darby to Webb's Ferry.
#19 , located on Carpenter's Island 1.3 miles northwest of Fort Mifflin to protect against a rear attack.
#20 (aka Emplacement of the Guards ), located on Carpenter's Island. Actually two redoubts on a hill 800 yards behind the Middle and Left Batteries to protect the work crews constructing the fortifications. Carpenter's Island no longer exists as such today.

Fort Wilson (2)
(1779), Philadelphia
The house of lawyer James Wilson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, accused by some of having Loyalist sympathies during the British occupation of the city. Scene of the "Fort Wilson Riot" in October 1779, where a mob consisting of militiamen and radical Constitutionalists marched on Wilson's home. Barricading himself in the house with thirty-five supporters, Wilson prepared for a skirmish. One of the radicals, Philadelphia artist Charles Willson Peale, made an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the mob to disperse, but they pushed by him to break down the doors. Shortly after, a cannon was brought up and shots rang out. When the dust cleared seven men lay dead and between fourteen and seventeen were wounded. Located at Third and Walnut Streets. See also PA state marker - James Wilson

Schuylkill Arsenal
(1799 - 1958/1999), Philadelphia FORT WIKI
Originally built as a U.S. Navy powder magazine. A new compound was completed by the Army in 1806 with four buildings on eight acres. It served originally as an ordnance and small arms munitions depot until it became a military textile depot (uniforms and flags) after 1818. Later expanded to 23 buildings. Renamed Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot in 1921. New buildings were built off-site in 1942, and the original complex was later closed and demolished by 1962, now the site of the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) power generating plant. Located at South 26th Street and Grays Ferry Ave., and Peltz Street and Washington Ave.. See also PA state marker || Flag Making at the Philadelphia QM Depot from the U.S. Army Quartermaster Foundation

The new post-WWII complex evolved into the Defense Supply Center - Philadelphia , serving all branches of the military. The facility was closed in 1999 when the DSCP relocated and merged with the Defense Industrial Supply Center at the former Naval Aviation Supply Depot in North Philadelphia . The DSCP was renamed Defense Logistics Agency - Troop Support in 2010.

A two-gun 3-inch anti-aircraft emplacement was built across the Schuylkill River from the Arsenal in 1918 by the Army, near the present-day Philadelphia Civic Center. No guns were ever mounted.

Philadelphia Powder Magazine
(1808 - 1874), Philadelphia
A stone buttressed two-story powder magazine once located on Magazine (Beggartown) Lane near Penrose Ferry Road. The ruins were torn down in 1940. It had replaced an earlier magazine located at Walnut and Ashton Streets.

Philadelphia Shot Tower
(1808 - 1903), Philadelphia
Built by Thomas Sparks, the 142-foot high brick shot tower is located at 131 (East) Carpenter Street, near South Front Street and the Delaware River. Provided lead shot for the U.S. Army during the War of 1812 and the Civil War. The extant tower is now on the grounds of the city's Shot Tower Recreation Center and public playground. The interior of the structure is closed to the public. This is one of only six historic shot towers still in existence in the country (the others are located at Baltimore , MD, Wytheville , VA, Columbus , OH, Spring Green , WI, and Dubuque , IA). See also Sparks Shot Tower from US History.org || From Musket Balls to Basketballs from Philly History.org

Philadelphia Civil War Camps and Forts
(1860's), Philadelphia
Civil War training camps were (based on period street names):
Camp Ballier (1861), located west of Ridge Road (Ridge Ave.).
Camp Banks , located on the east side of Germantown Road.
Camp Cadwalader (1861 - 1865), located on Islington Lane east of Ridge Road (Ave.).
Camp Camac Woods (1861), located at North 11th Street and Montgomery Ave., near present-day Temple University.
Camp Chase (1861), located on South 51st Street east of Darby Road (?), in the West Philly area.
Camp Chestnut Hill (1863 - 1865), the largest military hospital in the city, located between Abington and Springfield Aves., the Reading Railroad and Stenton Ave.. Renamed Mower General Hospital .
Camp Discharge (1864 - 1865), located at the present-day golf course of the Philadelphia Country Club. Originally named Camp Spring Mill .
Camp Gallagher (1861), located south of Ridge Road (Ave.).
Camp Hestonville (1861), located at Girard and Lancaster Aves., present-day Durham Park.
Camp McClellan (1861 - 1862), located in the Nicetown area below Germantown .
Camp McReynolds (1862), located near Ridge Road (Ave.) and Columbia Ave..
Camp Meigs , located north of Nicetown Lane and Old Second Street.
Camp Patterson , located at Point Breeze Park, near Penrose Ave. and South 26th Street.
Camp William Penn (1863 - 1865), a U.S. Colored Troops recruitment camp located in La Mott , the largest of only eighteen such U.S.C.T. camps in the country. Lumber from the barracks was later used to build the first six houses in town. The camp's gate is all that survives, located at 7322 Sycamore Ave.. State marker and stone monument at Keenan Street and Cheltenham Ave..
Camp Philadelphia (1862), located north of Market Street in the western section of downtown.
Camp Stanton (1863), located west of North Broad Street near Girard College.
Camp Stokley (1861), located on the Schuylkill River below Wissahickon Creek, in present-day Fairmount Park.
Camp Union (1) (1861), located north of Ridge Road (Ave.) near Queen's Lane.

Fort Dana (1863), an earthwork located at the Falls of the Schuylkill River, was the largest of several redoubts to protect the city against Confederate attacks. No guns were ever mounted, as the threat receded after the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863). The names and locations for other defense works have not been determined, but most likely all located west of the Schuylkill River.

Frankford Arsenal
(1816 - 1977), Philadelphia FORT WIKI
Located along the Delaware River at Frankford Creek, it originally consisted of only an Officers' quarters, commandant's house, and a stone powder magazine clustered around a parade ground on 20 acres. It remained primarily a storage depot until the Civil War. It later grew to 234 buildings on 110 acres after WWII, becoming one of the major ordnance centers of the U.S. Army, producing mostly small arms munitions. The complex was sold for redevelopment in 1983. Now the Arsenal Business Center at 2275 Bridge Street, at Tacony Street (public access restricted) and The Shopping Center at the Arsenal (currently under development).

Camp Anthony Wayne (3)
(1926), Philadelphia
A temporary encampment of various selected military units, guarding the Sesquicentennial International Exhibition.

Cold War AAA Defenses of Philadelphia
(1952 - 1957), Philadelphia area
Several permanent sites were established for the Army's Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) Gun Site Program, the precursor to the NIKE missile defense program. Four 90mm AA guns were positioned at each site, with troop barracks and other support buildings. Known sites include:
Philadelphia (1956 - 1957): at Philadelphia International Airport ( PH-57 ).
Tacony (1952 - 1956): at the 6400 or 6500 block of Keystone Street.
Germantown (1952 - 1954): at Ardleigh Street (Logan Station) ( PH-02 ).
Roxborough (1955 - 1956): undetermined ( PH-94 ).
Swarthmore (1952 - 1953) battery headquarters only: undetermined.
Swarthmore (1952 - 1954): undetermined ( PH-03 ).
Swarthmore (1952 - 1954): undetermined ( PH-09 ).
Marple (1952 - 1954): undetermined ( PH-73 ).
Media (1952 - 1953): undetermined.

NIKE missile defense sites (1955 - 1974) are beyond the scope of this website.

(See also NEW JERSEY page 2)

Whitemarsh Encampment
(Fort Washington State Park)
(1777), between Fort Washington and Whitemarsh
Fort Washington (1) was located on Fort Hill inside the park. It has been reconstructed. Additional earthworks were once constructed on Militia Hill and Camp Hill. This was a temporary Patriot encampment during the Whitemarsh Campaign - after the Battle of Germantown (October 1777) and before Valley Forge (December 1777). Admission fee.

Of interest nearby is the Hope Lodge Historic Site (Whitemarsh Estate Manor House) (1748) at 553 South Bethlehem Pike, where General Washington had his headquarters.

Gulph Mills Encampment
(1777), Gulph Mills
A temporary Patriot camp on the route from Whitemarsh to Valley Forge . Site located near Calvary Cemetery.

Valley Forge Encampment (National Historical Park)
(1777 - 1778), Valley Forge
The famous Patriot winter encampment of the American Revolution (Dec. 1777 - June 1778). Defensive redoubts built were Fort Greene, Fort Huntington (Redoubt #4), Fort Muhlenberg (Redoubt #2), Star Redoubt, Stirling Redoubt , and Fort Washington (2) , along with trenchworks located along the southern and western sides of the encampment area.

Wentz Farm Encampment
(Peter Wentz Farmstead Society)
(1777), Worcester
This historic house (1758) and farmstead served as part of the Patriot encampment area before and after the Battle of Germantown (Oct. 1777). Located at 2100 Schultz Road. (2030 Shearer Road)

Pennypacker Mills Encampment
(Pennypacker Mills Historic Site)
(1777), Schwenksville
This historic home (1720) and farmstead served as part of the Patriot encampment area before and after the Battle of Germantown (Oct. 1777). Located at 5 Haldeman Road.


Ready to move against the retreating British, Washington abandoned Valley Forge on June 9 by crossing the Schuylkill River and setting up camp a mile away. He ordered work parties to clean up the old campgrounds, filling the latrines and burying all garbage.

The general was waiting for the British to make their move north through New Jersey. And when word came that the Red Coats were gone on June 18th, he followed immediately.

Now the Continental Army was ready to fight. Professionalism, confidence and pride marked those who had survived the ordeal of Valley Forge.

The two armies clashed on June 28 at Monmouth Courthouse. The battle was almost single-handedly lost by an inept but always arrogant Gen. Charles Lee. When Washington learned that Lee was retreating instead of advancing, the seemingly stoic commander flew into fury and galloped out to turn the men around and lead the attack.

The battle at Monmouth was inconclusive, but it was the British who retreated this time. And it was clear to everyone that those ragged Continentals &mdash who had suffered so much at Valley Forge &mdash were now a fair match for the British.


Se videoen: Streets of Philadelphia, Kensington Ave, Heres What Happened, Saturday, Sept 25, 2021. (Januar 2022).