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Opprinnelige innbyggere i New Jersey

Opprinnelige innbyggere i New Jersey


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På tidspunktet for den europeiske ankomsten til New Jersey ble landet okkupert av 8 000 til 10 000 indianere kjent som Lenni Lenape (som betyr "opprinnelige mennesker"). Disse innbyggerne, en del av den algonkiske språkgruppen, ble kalt av Delaware av nybyggerne. Den innfødte økonomien var avhengig av jakt og jordbruk (først og fremst squash, mais og bønner). Lenni Lenape var i hovedsak et fredelig folk og deres forhold til nybyggerne var ikke så voldelige som i de fleste av de andre koloniene. Likevel minket den innfødte befolkningen raskt etter at europeerne ankom, hovedsakelig på grunn av introduksjon av sykdommer.


Se Indian Wars.
Se også kart over indianerkulturelle regioner.


Grunnleggelse og historie for New Jersey -kolonien

John Cabot var den første europeiske oppdagelsesreisende som kom i kontakt med New Jersey -kysten. Henry Hudson utforsket også dette området da han søkte etter den nordvestlige passasjen. Området som senere skulle være New Jersey var en del av New Netherland. Det nederlandske West India Company ga Michael Pauw et patronat i New Jersey. Han kalte landet sitt Pavonia. I 1640 ble et svensk samfunn opprettet i dagens New Jersey ved Delaware-elven. Det var imidlertid først i 1660 at den første permanente europeiske bosetningen Bergen ble opprettet.


Jonathan Dayton, New Jersey

Dayton ble født i Elizabethtown (nåværende Elizabeth), NJ, i 1760. Faren var en butikksjef som også var aktiv i lokal- og statspolitikk. Ungdommen fikk en god utdannelse, og ble uteksaminert fra College of New Jersey (senere Princeton) i 1776. Han gikk umiddelbart inn i den kontinentale hæren og så omfattende handling. Han oppnådde rang som kaptein i en alder av 19 år og tjenestegjorde under sin far, general Elias Dayton, og Marquis de Lafayette, han var en fange av britene en tid og deltok i slaget ved Yorktown, VA.

Etter krigen kom Dayton hjem, studerte jus og etablerte en praksis. I løpet av 1780 -årene delte han tiden mellom landspekulasjoner, juridisk praksis og politikk. Han satt i forsamlingen i 1786-87. I det siste året ble han valgt som delegat til den konstitusjonelle konvensjonen etter at lederne for hans politiske fraksjon, hans far og hans beskytter, Abraham Clark, nektet å delta. Dayton ankom ikke Philadelphia før 21. juni, men deltok deretter trofast i saksbehandlingen. Han snakket med moderat frekvens under debattene, og selv om han protesterte mot noen bestemmelser i grunnloven, signerte han den.

Etter å ha sittet på den kontinentale kongressen i 1788, ble Dayton en fremste føderalistisk lovgiver i den nye regjeringen. Selv om han ble valgt som representant, tjenestegjorde han ikke på den første kongressen i 1789, og foretrakk i stedet å bli medlem av New Jersey -rådet og taler for statsforsamlingen. I 1791 gikk han imidlertid inn i Det amerikanske representanthuset (1791-99) og ble taler i den fjerde og femte kongressen. I løpet av denne perioden støttet han Hamiltons finansprogram, undertrykkelse av Whisky -opprøret, Jays traktat og en rekke andre føderalistiske tiltak.

I personlige saker kjøpte Dayton Boxwood Hall i 1795 som sitt hjem i Elizabethtown og bodde der til hans død. Han ble hevet til det amerikanske senatet (1799-1805). Han støttet Louisiana -kjøpet (1803) og motsatte seg i samsvar med hans føderalistiske synspunkter opphevelsen av rettsloven fra 1801.

I 1806 forhindret sykdom Dayton fra å følge Aaron Burrs abortekspedisjon til sørvest, hvor sistnevnte tilsynelatende hadde til hensikt å erobre spanske land og skape et imperium. Deretter ble tiltalt for forræderi, Dayton ble ikke tiltalt, men kunne ikke redde sin nasjonale politiske karriere. Han forble imidlertid populær i New Jersey, men fortsatte å ha lokale kontorer og satt i forsamlingen (1814-15).

I 1824 var den 63 år gamle Dayton vert for Lafayette under hans triumftur i USA, og hans død ved Elizabeth senere samme år kan ha blitt fremskyndet av anstrengelsen og spenningen. Han ble begravet i St. John's Episcopal Church i hjembyen. Fordi han eide 250 000 dekar Ohio-land mellom Big og Little Miami Rivers, byen Dayton, ble oppkalt etter ham-hans store monument. Han hadde giftet seg med Susan Williamson, men datoen for bryllupet deres er ukjent. De hadde to døtre.

Bilde: Courtesy of National Archives, Records of Exposition, Anniversary, and Memorial Commissions (148-CC-7-1)


New Jersey

De første kjente innbyggerne i det som nå er New Jersey var Leni-Lenape (som betyr " Original People "), som ankom landet mellom elvene Hudson og Delaware for rundt 6000 år siden. Medlemmer av den algonkiske språkgruppen, Leni-Lenape, var et jordbruksfolk som supplerer kostholdet med ferskvannsfisk og skalldyr. Den fredselskende Leni-Lenape trodde på monogami, utdannet barna i de enkle ferdighetene som trengs for å overleve i villmarken, og holdt fast ved en tradisjon om at en gryte med mat alltid må være varm på bålet for å ønske alle fremmede velkommen.

Den første europeiske oppdagelsesreisende som nådde New Jersey var Giovanni da Verrazano, som seilte inn i det som nå er Newark Bay i 1524. Henry Hudson, en engelsk kaptein som seilte under nederlandsk flagg, piloterte Half Moon langs New Jersey -kysten og inn i Sandy Hook Bay. på sensommeren 1609, en reise som etablerte et nederlandsk krav til den nye verden. Hollandere kom for å handle i det som nå er Hudson County allerede i 1618, og i 1660 grunnla de New Jersey 's første by, kalt Bergen (nå en del av Jersey City). I mellomtiden, over hele staten, begynte svenske nybyggere å flytte øst for Delaware -elven i 1639. Kolonien deres i Ny -Sverige hadde bare en kort herlighetsturt, fra 1643 til 1653, under guvernør Johan Printz.

Leni-Lenape tapte for nykommerne, enten de var nederlandske, svenske eller engelske, til tross for en rekke traktater som europeerne syntes var rettferdige. Statlige og lokale poster beskriver disse avtalene: enorme landområder byttet ut mot pyntegjenstander, våpen og alkohol. Kanonene og alkoholen, kombinert med kopper (en annen europeisk import), dømte "Original People. " I 1758, da en traktat etablerte et indisk reservat ved Brotherton (nå byen Indian Mills), var det bare noen få hundre indianere ble igjen.

England overtok kontrollen i mars 1664, da kong Charles II ga en region fra Connecticut -elven til Delaware -elven til broren James, hertugen av York. Hertugen gjerde på sin side landet mellom elvene Hudson og Delaware, som han kalte New Jersey, til sine hoffvenner John Berkeley, 1. baron Berkeley fra Stratton og Sir George Carteret, 23. juni 1664. Lord Berkeley og Sir George ble eiere, som eier landet og hadde rett til å styre folket. Deretter gikk landet i hendene på to eierstyrer i to provinser kalt East Jersey og West Jersey, med hovedstedene i henholdsvis Perth Amboy og Burlington. East Jersey ble hovedsakelig bosatt av puritanere fra Long Island og New England, West Jersey av Quakers fra England. Splittelsen kostet kolonien dyrt i 1702, da dronning Anne forente Øst- og Vest -Jersey, men plasserte dem under New York -styre. Kolonien fikk ikke sin egen hjemmestyre " før i 1738, da Lewis Morris ble kåret til den første kongelige guvernøren.

På dette tidspunktet var New Jersey 's delt karakter allerede etablert. Østlige New Jersey så mot New York, vestlige New Jersey mot Philadelphia. Nivåsletten som forbinder de to store kolonialbyene gjorde det sikkert at New Jersey ville fungere som en vei. Langs de provisoriske veiene som snart krysset regionen og flere veier enn i noen annen koloni, kom #reisende med motstridende nyheter og ideer. Under den amerikanske revolusjonen var kolonien omtrent like delt mellom revolusjonister og lojalister. William Franklin (uekte sønn av Benjamin Franklin), kongelig guvernør fra 1763 til 1776, prøvde tappert å holde New Jersey sympatisk for England, men mislyktes og ble arrestert. Gjennom revolusjonstiden forble han en ledende lojalist etter krigen, han dro til England.

Franklins innflytelse førte til at New Jersey først daltet over uavhengigheten, men i juni 1776 sendte kolonien fem nye delegater til den kontinentale kongressen Abraham Clark, John Hart, Frances Hopkinson, Richard Stockton og pastor John Witherspoon 𠅊ll som stemte for uavhengighetserklæringen. To dager før erklæringen ble kunngjort, vedtok New Jersey sin første statlige grunnlov. William Livingston, en brennende anti-britisk propagandist, var den første valgte guvernøren i staten.

New Jersey spilte en sentral rolle i revolusjonskrigen, for siden som kontrollerte både New York og Philadelphia ville nesten helt sikkert vinne. George Washington og hans mishandlede tropper lagde sitt vinterhovedkvarter i staten tre ganger i løpet av de fire første årene av krigen, to ganger i Morristown og en gang i Somerville. Fem store slag ble utkjempet i New Jersey, den viktigste var slaget ved Trenton 26. desember 1776 og slaget ved Monmouth 28. juni 1778. Ved slutten av krigen ble Princeton den midlertidige hovedstaden i USA fra 26. juni 1783 til 4. november 1783.

Staten forsvant etter revolusjonen, med mange av dens byer herjet etter at konkurrerende hærer gikk bort, handelen avhengig av New York City og jernverket (først etablert i 1676) ble stengt på grunn av redusert etterspørsel. Statens ledere støttet kraftig en føderasjon av de 13 statene, der alle stater, uansett størrelse, ville være representert likt i ett nasjonalt lovgivende organ. Denne såkalte New Jersey-planen førte til etableringen av det amerikanske senatet.

Jernbaner og kanaler brakte liv til staten på 1830 -tallet og satte den på vei til urbanisering og industrialisering. Den 145 kilometer lange Morris Canal knyttet nordlige New Jersey til kullfeltene i Pennsylvania. Betraktet som et av de tekniske underverkene på 1800 -tallet, steg kanalen til 914 fot (279 meter) fra havnivået ved Newark Bay til Lake Hopatcong, og falt deretter 760 fot (232 meter) til et punkt ved Delaware -elven overfor Easton, Pa Gamle jerngruver ved siden av kanalen fant markeder, farging og vevverk av Paterson blomstret, og Newark, som var mest berørt av de fremvoksende næringene, ble statens første innlemmede by i 1836. En annen kanal, Delaware og Raritan, krysset relativt flatt land fra Bordentown, Trenton og New Brunswick boomet. Princeton, hvis ledere kjempet for å holde kanalen borte fra byen, bosatte seg i en lang eksistens da et høyskolefellesskap bygget rundt College of New Jersey, grunnlagt i Elizabeth i 1746 og overført til Princeton i 1756.

Kanalene ble dømt av jernbanekonkurranse nesten fra starten. Morris -kanalen var insolvent lenge før første verdenskrig, og Delaware -kanalen gikk, selv om den var i drift frem til 1934, i en langsom, sakte nedgang etter borgerkrigen. Den første jernbanen, fra Bordentown til South Amboy, parallelt med Delaware og Raritan -kanalen og ble i 1871 en viktig del av Pennsylvania Railroad. Kullet som ble ført inn på jernbanevogner frigjorde industrien fra vannkraftfabrikker som dukket opp uansett hvor skinnene gikk. Havnefronten i Hudson County, den østlige enden for de fleste av landets jernbanesystemer, ble det viktigste jernbaneområdet i USA. Jernbanelinjer fraktet også ferierende til Jersey -kysten, og bygde en viktig inntektskilde for staten.

Borgerkrigen delte New Jersey bittert. Ledere i Det demokratiske partiet motsatte seg krigen som en "Sort republikansk " affære. Velstående industrimenn i Newark og Trenton fryktet at deres kraftige handel med Sør ville bli svekket, Cape May innkeepers bekymret seg over tapet av turister fra Virginia, og til og med Princeton -studenter var splittet. Så sent som sommeren 1863, etter slaget ved Gettysburg, oppfordret mange statlige fredsdemokrater nord til å slutte fred med konføderasjonen. Utkast til oppfordringer ble kraftig motarbeidet i 1863, men staten sendte sin fulle kvote med tropper til tjeneste under hele konflikten. Det viktigste, New Jersey -fabrikker strømmet frem strømmer av ammunisjon og annet utstyr til unionshæren. Ved slutten av krig motsatte politiske ledere seg hardt mot 13., 14. og 15. endring av den amerikanske grunnloven, og svarte fikk ikke lov til å stemme i staten før i 1870.

I løpet av de siste tiårene på 1800 -tallet utviklet New Jersey et rykte for fabrikker som var i stand til å gjøre komponentene nødvendige for tusenvis av andre produksjonsbedrifter. Få fabrikker var store, selv om Isaac M. Singer i 1873 åpnet et stort symaskinanlegg på Elizabeth som sysselsatte 3000 personer. Oljeraffinerier ved havnen i Hudson County hadde stadig større lønninger, keramikkfirmaer i Trenton trivdes, og Newark fikk styrke fra mange forskjellige produsenter og så også forsikringsselskapene bli nasjonalt mektige.

Kriger fra det tjuende århundre stimulerte New Jersey 's næringer. Under første verdenskrig gjorde gigantiske verft i Newark, Kearny og Camden New Jersey til landets ledende skipsbyggerstat. Middlesex County -området raffinerte 75% av landets kobber, og nesten 75% av amerikanske skjell ble lastet i staten. Andre verdenskrig gjenopplivet skipsbyggings- og ammunisjonsindustrien, mens kjemisk og farmasøytisk produksjon, som ble forårsaket av første verdenskrigs avbrudd for tyske kjemikalier, viste ytterligere vekst under den andre verdenskonflikten. Paterson, som var fremtredende innen lokomotivbygging i løpet av 1800 -tallet, ble landets fremste produksjonssenter for flymotorer. Trenings- og mobiliseringssentre ved Ft. Dix og Camp Kilmer flyttet millioner av soldater inn i frontlinjene.

US Census Bureau kalte New Jersey offisielt "urban " i 1880, da statens befolkning steg over 1 million for første gang. Urbaniseringen intensiverte seg gjennom det 20. århundre og spesielt etter andre verdenskrig, da folk forlot de gamle byene i New Jersey og andre nordøstlige stater for å kjøpe boliger i utbygginger på tidligere jordbruksområder. Steder som Cherry Hill, Woodbridge, Clifton og Middletown Township blomstret etter 1945 og økte befolkningen så mye som seksdoblet i tiårene som fulgte. New Jersey har også opplevd mange av problemene med urbanisering. Byene har redusert trafikkbelastningen er intens om morgenen, når pendlere strømmer inn i urbane områder for å jobbe, og igjen om kvelden, når de kommer hjem til det som en gang ble kalt " landet. " Det landet kjenner nå problemene av byvekst: økte behov for skoler, kloakk, politi og brannvern, og vedlikehold av veier, sammen med stigende skatter.

Staten har imidlertid ikke overgitt seg til problemene sine. I 1947 godkjente velgerne overveldende en ny statskonstitusjon, et kortfattet, omfattende dokument som effektiviserte statsregjeringen, reformerte statens kaotiske rettssystem og påla like rettigheter for alle. Guvernør Alfred E. Driscoll integrerte raskt New Jersey National Guard, til tross for en sterk føderal målsetting fulgte snart integrasjonen av alle amerikanske væpnede styrker. Etter 1950 passerte velgerne et stort utvalg obligasjonslån på flere millioner dollar for å etablere eller gjenoppbygge statlige høyskoler. Det ble bevilget midler til kjøp og utvikling av nye park- og skogområder. Store obligasjonslån har finansiert bygging av motorveier, reservoarer og hurtigtransportsystemer. I midten av 2000 godkjente statslovgiver det største byggeprogrammet i New Jersey-historien. Lovgivere ble enige om å bruke 12 milliarder dollar på hele systemet, med fordeler å se både i indre byer og i forsteder.

På 1970- og begynnelsen av 1980 -tallet opplevde New Jersey en lavkonjunktur. Arbeidsledigheten steg til nesten 10%. Over 270 000 mennesker forlot staten. Statens byer ble spesielt hardt rammet, både under tap av produksjonsjobber og fra en flytur med detaljhandel til forstadssentre. Økonomien i New Jersey i disse tiårene gjennomgikk også en dramatisk restrukturering. Mens staten mistet over 200 000 produksjonsjobber, fikk den 670 000 jobber i tjenesteytende næringer. Økonomien tok seg opp igjen på 1980 -tallet, men begynte å trekke seg sammen igjen på slutten av tiåret, og falt ytterligere under lavkonjunkturen på begynnelsen av 1990 -tallet. I 1996 falt statens arbeidsledighet under 6% for første gang på seks år. I 1999 hadde den sunket til 4,6%. Observatører krediterte utvinningen på 1990-tallet delvis til en dyktig arbeidsstyrke som tiltrukket farmasøytiske, bioteknologiske, elektroniske og andre høyteknologiske selskaper til staten. Skatt og økonomiske insentiver bidro også til å bringe virksomheten til staten. Staten rangerte nummer to i nasjonen både i personinntekt per innbygger ($ 33 ​​953) og lav fattigdomsrate (8,6%) i 1998. Imidlertid sto staten overfor et budsjettunderskudd på nær 5 milliarder dollar i 2003.

I september 1999 opplevde New Jersey en av de verste naturkatastrofer i sin historie. Orkanen Floyd skadet mer enn 8000 hjem og ødela flere hundre flere. En føderal hjelpepakke som ble godkjent i 2000, lovet ofrene en viss lettelse.

I løpet av andre halvdel av 1900 -tallet hadde New Jersey ikke noe forutsigbart politisk mønster. Det ga enorme presidentflertall til republikaneren Dwight D. Eisenhower og demokraten Lyndon B. Johnson, støttet smalt demokraten John F. Kennedy, favoriserte republikaneren Gerald Ford fremfor demokraten Jimmy Carter med liten margin, ga to store flertall til republikaneren Ronald Reagan, favoriserte demokraten Bill Clinton på 1990 -tallet, og favoriserte demokraten Al Gore fremfor George W. Bush i 2000. I mer enn 20 år var statens to amerikanske senatorer, Clifford B. Case (R) og Harrison A. Williams (D), anerkjent som likesinnede liberale. Demokraten Bill Bradley, tidligere Princeton University og New York Knickerbockers basketballstjerne, ble valgt til Case 's sete i 1978. (I 1999 stilte Bradley opp til presidentskapet. Selv om han fikk betydelig støtte fra velgerne, droppet han sitt bud på Demokraten nominasjon i møte med konkurranse fra visepresident Al Gore.)

Den republikanske guvernøren Thomas Kean, som tjenestegjorde fra 1983 og#x201389, bidro til å forbedre det offentlige bildet av New Jersey, lenge oppfattet som dominert av røykbøyende fabrikker og urolige byer. Kean ble etterfulgt av demokraten Jim Florio som forsøkte å omfordele formue i hele staten ved å doble inntektsskatten til de som befinner seg i toppklassen, øke salgsskatten, senke eiendomsskatten for mellom- og lavinntektshuseiere og -leiere og flytte statsstøtte fra offentlige skoler i velstående områder til skoler i fattige og moderate inntektssamfunn. I 1992 mistet Florio sitt bud på gjenvalg til republikaneren Christine Todd Whitman, som lovet å senke inntektsskatten med 30%. Så snart hun tiltrådte, implementerte Whitman et kutt på 5% og presset gjennom ytterligere 10% som en del av budsjettpakken i 1993. Whitman vant en annen periode i valget i 1996. Whitman ble utnevnt til president George W. Bush 's sjef for Environmental Protection Agency hun tiltrådte i januar 2001 og trakk seg i mai 2003.


En tur til den eldste byen i New Jersey vil overvelde deg med utrolig historie

En av New Jerseys mest moderne byer er også den eldste. I dag er Jersey City hjemmet til ruvende bygninger, vakre museer, det største planetariet i Amerika og en blanding av utrolige spisesteder som ville få enhver foodie til å svime. Imidlertid har byen også en veldig rik historie. Det ligger på landet som først ble grunnlagt av nederlenderne i 1660.

I 1621 ble det nederlandske vestindiske kompani organisert for å forvalte dette nye territoriet, og i juni 1623 ble New Netherland en nederlandsk provins med hovedkvarter i New Amsterdam. Michael Reyniersz Pauw mottok et landstipend som mønster under forutsetning av at han skulle etablere et oppgjør med ikke færre enn femti personer innen fire år. Han valgte vestbredden av North River (Hudson River) og kjøpte landet fra Lenape. Dette tilskuddet er datert 22. november 1630 og er den tidligste kjente formidlingen for det som nå er Hoboken og Jersey City.

Pauw var imidlertid en fraværende utleier som forsømte å befolke området og var forpliktet til å selge beholdningen tilbake til selskapet i 1633. Det året ble det bygget et hus på Communipaw for Jan Evertsen Bout, superintendent for kolonien, som hadde vært navngitt Pavonia (den latiniserte formen til Pauws navn. Kort tid etter ble et annet hus bygget ved Harsimus Cove og ble hjemmet til Cornelius Van Vorst, som etterfulgte Bout som superintendent, og hvis familie ville bli innflytelsesrik i utviklingen av byen.

Forholdet til Lenape forverret seg, delvis på grunn av kolonialistens dårlig ledelse og misforståelse av urbefolkningen, og førte til en rekke raid og represalier og den virtuelle ødeleggelsen av bosetningen på vestbredden. Under Kieft's War ble omtrent åtti Lenapes drept av nederlenderne i en massakre i Pavonia natten til 25. februar 1643. Etter massakren ble området midlertidig evakuert. Det var en annen krig ti år senere.

I august 1655 forlot han med støtte fra rundt 600 soldater New Amsterdam for å sikre kolonien New Sweden langs Delaware -elven for nederlenderne. Under hans fravær, 15. september 1655, kom en ung indisk jente inn i frukthagen til Henry Van Dyck på Manhattan Island. Hun klatret opp på et tre for å plukke en fersken hun hadde spionert. Van Dyck fornærmet over hennes overbærenhet og tok den ekstreme reaksjonen at han drepte henne med riflet. Fem hundre indere angrep det de trodde var en passende tid til å gjengjelde, og angrep Hoboken, Pavonia og Staten Island i tre dager. Det forårsaket at 100 nederlendere døde, fangsten av 150, såret av Van Dyck og ødeleggelsen av mange hjem.

For detaljer om en Jersey City vandretur, klikk her. For å oppdage et annet utrolig historisk sted i Jersey City, klikk her. Det er en kirkegård, men det er også et veldig fascinerende samlingspunkt for samfunnet. For å lære mer om New Jerseys andre eldste byer og tettsteder, klikk her.


Historien om New Jersey

Denne illustrerte artikkelen gir interessante fakta, informasjon og en historisk tidslinje for indianerne i New Jersey.

Klimaet, landet, historien, miljøet og naturressursene som var tilgjengelige for de innfødte indianerstammene i New Jersey resulterte i adopsjonen av Northeast Woodlands -kulturen.

New Jersey -indianernes historie
Faktorer som bidro til statens historie er beskrevet i tidslinjen for historie. Tidslinjen for historien viser virkningen av de nye som kommer for staten.

Steinalderhistorie i New Jersey
De amerikanske indianerne som bodde i det som nå er den nåværende delstaten New Jersey ledet en levetid i steinalderen - de hadde bare steinverktøy og våpen, hadde aldri sett en hest og hadde ikke kjennskap til hjulet. New Jersey -indianernes historie er detaljert i denne artikkelen.

Statskart over New Jersey

Statskart som viser plasseringen av New Jersey -indianere

Navn på New Jersey Indian Tribes
New Jersey er en delstat i det nordøstlige USA ved Atlanterhavet. Det er mange kjente indianerstammer som spilte en rolle i statens historie og hvis stammeterritorier og hjemland ligger i dagens delstaten New Jersey. Navnene på New Jersey -stammene inkluderte Abenaki, Malecite, Passamaquoddy og Pennacook.

New Jersey Indianers historie - De franske indiske krigene
De franske og indiske krigene (1688 - 1763) var et generisk navn på en rekke kriger, kamper og konflikter som involverte de franske koloniene i Canada og Louisiana og de 13 britiske koloniene, som inkluderte New Jersey, bestående av King William's War (1688- 1699), Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), King George 's War (1744-1748) og den franske og indiske krigen, også kjent som Seven Years War (1754-1763). Ulike indianerstammer i New Jersey ble alliert til de franske og britiske koloniene under de franske indiskrigene som raste i nesten 75 år.

  • Statens navn: New Jersey
  • Betydning av statsnavn: Oppkalt etter den britiske øya Jersey, som ligger i Den engelske kanal.
  • Geografi, miljø og kjennetegn ved staten New Jersey: Appalachian Valley, Appalachian Highlands Piemonte -platået og lang kystslette
  • Kultur vedtatt av New Jersey Indians: Northeast Woodlands Cultural Group
  • Språk: Iroquoian og Algonquian
  • Livsstil (livsstil): Jegersamlere, bønder, fiskere, fangere
  • Boligtyper, boliger eller tilfluktsrom: Wigwams (aka Birchbark -hus) og Longhouse

Historie Tidslinje for New Jersey -indianerne
Historien og livsstilen til New Jersey -indianere ble dypt påvirket av nykommere i området. Urfolket hadde okkupert landet tusenvis av år før de første europeiske oppdagelsesreisende kom. Europeerne tok med seg nye ideer, skikker, religioner, våpen, transport (hesten og hjulet), husdyr (storfe og sau) og sykdommer som hadde stor innvirkning på indianernes historie. For en omfattende historie tidslinje angående de tidlige nybyggerne og kolonistene henvises til Colonial America Time Period. Historien til staten og dens indianere er beskrevet i en enkel historie -tidslinje. Denne tidslinjen for indisk historie i New Jersey gir en liste med detaljer om datoer for konflikter, kriger og kamper som involverer indianere i New Jersey og deres historie. Vi har også detaljert store hendelser i amerikansk historie som påvirket historien til New Jersey -indianerne.

New Jersey History tidslinje

Historie Tidslinje for indianerne i New Jersey

10.000 f.Kr.: Paleo-indisk æra (steinalderkultur) de tidligste menneskelige innbyggerne i Amerika som bodde i huler og var nomadiske jegere av storvilt, inkludert den store mammuten og den gigantiske bisonen.

7000 f.Kr.: Arkaisk periode der folk bygde grunnleggende tilfluktsrom og laget steinvåpen og steinverktøy

1000 e.Kr.: Woodland Periode - boliger ble etablert langs elver og handelsutvekslingssystemer og gravsystemer ble etablert

1500- til 1600 -tallet: New Jersey utforsket av europeere fra Storbritannia, Sverige, Holland og Frankrike

168 8 : 1688 - 1763 De franske og indiske krigene mellom Frankrike og Storbritannia for landområder i Nord -Amerika bestående av kong William's War (1688-1699), Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), King George's War (1744 - 1748) og franskmennene og Indisk krig, også kjent som syvårskrigen (1754-1763)

1754: 1754 - 1763: Den franske indiske krigen blir vunnet av Storbritannia mot franskmennene, og dermed avsluttes serien med konflikter kjent som den franske og indiske krigen

1763: Paris -traktaten

1775: 1775 - 1783 - Den amerikanske revolusjonen.

1776: 4. juli 1776 - USAs uavhengighetserklæring

1803: USA kjøpte Louisiana -territoriet fra Frankrike for 15 millioner dollar for landet

1812: 1812 - 1815: Krigen i 1812 mellom USA og Storbritannia endte i et dødvann, men bekreftet Amerikas uavhengighet

18 30 : Indisk fjerningslov

18 32 : Institutt for indiske anliggender opprettet

1861: 1861 - 1865: Den amerikanske borgerkrigen.

18 62 : Den amerikanske kongressen vedtar Homestead Act som åpner Great Plains til nybyggere

1865: Overgivelsen av Robert E. Lee 9. april 1865 signaliserte slutten på konføderasjonen

1887 : Dawes General Allotment Act vedtatt av kongressen fører til brudd på de store indiske reservasjonene og salg av indiske landområder til hvite nybyggere

1969: Alle indianere erklærte borgere i USA

1979: American Indian Religious Freedom Act ble vedtatt

Historie Tidslinje for indianerne i New Jersey

Tidslinjen for State of New Jersey History

New Jersey -indianeres historie - ødeleggelse og tilbakegang
Historien om den europeiske invasjonen førte til epidemiske sykdommer som tuberkulose, kolera, influensa, meslinger og kopper. Indianerne i New Jersey hadde ikke utviklet immunitet mot disse sykdommene som resulterte i store tap i befolkningen. Utbytting inkludert innflytelse av skatter, tvangsarbeid og slaveri var en del av deres historie, og tok sine toll på New Jersey -indianerne.


Første historie om Bayonne, New Jersey

Jeg har stor glede av å etterkomme forespørselen fra forfatteren om at jeg skriver noen introduksjonsord til hans historie om Bayonne. Så langt jeg er informert, er det det første forsøket fra noen å samle og registrere saker av historisk interesse knyttet til denne lokaliteten i permanent form. Det er sant at en eller flere historier i dette fylket er skrevet, men ingen av dem har viet særlig mye oppmerksomhet til dette fellesskapet. Forfatterens oppgave har derfor vært en pioner, og av den grunn står vi mer i gjeld til ham. Hvis bokens innhold gir en nøyaktig oversikt over hendelsene som førte til oppgjør i denne delen av Bergen Neck, og de tidlige innbyggernes erfaringer, vil historien være verdt å lese, og hvis vi setter pris på fordelene vi har, sammenlignet med dem bør vi lett overbevises om at byens fremtidige historie i stor grad avhenger av oss selv. Hvis vi er tro mot mulighetene våre, kan barna våre kanskje si: "Vi er borgere i ingen middelby." Selv om det kan være sant at det er to hundre og femti år siden de første nybyggerne bodde her, er det også sant at historien til Bayonne, fra et kommersielt synspunkt, begynner på et mye senere tidspunkt. Før etableringen av oljeraffineriene ved Constable's Hook, var Bayonne ukjent utenfor Port Johnson, bortsett fra som en fiskerlandsby og et sommersted. Siden den gang har ønsket om kommersielle formål tiltrukket seg oppmerksomhet fra produsenter og menn som driver store bedrifter. Utsiktene nå ser rimelige ut til å bli et av de viktigste produksjonssenterene i staten.

Bayonne, som mange forsteder i skyggen av en storby, har lidd på grunn av at de som ellers ville vært dens mest innflytelsesrike innbyggere, ble absorbert i storbyens saker. Med mektige menn bosatt innenfor våre grenser, som også er identifisert med forretningsinteresser her, er det stor sannsynlighet for at en større lokal interesse utvikles. Jeg tror at i denne forbindelse er nåtiden begynnelsen på en ny epoke. With the natural advantages of a large water front, and the facilities afforded by the railroads entering our city, there is every reason to believe that in the near future great changes will be worked in our midst. It is, therefore, fortunate that one of our citizens has undertaken to perpetuate the memory of the past before all the old residents have departed, and the ancient landmarks disappeared. Such a book as the History of Bayonne should tend to foster civic pride, without which no city can succeed. I have been awaiting with much interest the appearance of the book, and feel quite confident that it will serve a very useful purpose in the community.


Original Inhabitants of New Jersey - History

Council of Proprietors of West Jersey
Origin and History
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Read before the Society March 11, 1922.
By C. CHESTER CRAIG
Register of the Council of Proprietors of the Western Division of New Jersey
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The history of the Proprietors of the Western Division of New Jersey is so interwoven with that of New Jersey that one can get a much better understanding of their origin by a review of the early history of the Colony.

Years ago at school we were taught that John Cabot by authority of Henry VII of England, in attempting to find the northwesterly passage to India discovered Labrador in 1497, fourteen months before Columbus discovered the Continent that his son, Sebastian Cabot, in 1498 discovered Newfoundland and coasted as far south as Chesapeake bay that by virtue of these discoveries the English acquired title to that portion of North America in which New Jersey is situate that in 1664, King Charles II made a grant to his brother the Duke of York, afterward James II, of a tract extending from the Connecticut river to Delaware bay that the Duke of York in the same year made a grant of New Jersey to Carteret and Berkley, and that Berkley sold his undivided interest in New Jersey to John Fenwick in trust for Edward Byllinge, an English Quaker, and his assigns. All of which while true as far as it goes, does not give all the facts of the case.

The English title to New Jersey was clouded by the Dutch who discovered the Hudson river in 1609, settled at New York in 1613, in Bergen, N. J., in 1618, issued patents to settlers in the northern part of New Jersey, at Cape May and along the Delaware river it was also clouded by the Swedes who made settlements along the Delaware river in what are now Gloucester and Salem counties.

At the time that Charles II made the grant to the Duke of York, the Dutch had conquered the Swedes and held absolute control of what is now New Jersey. Their Governor Stuyvesant had effected a treaty with the New England colonists (treaty of Hartford, 9 19--1650), whereby the Connecticut river was recognized by them as the boundary line between the English and Dutch, and in 1654 the treaty between Cromwell and Holland recognized the Dutch claims in America.

At all events the English were not in possession of New Jersey on the date when the grant to the Duke of York was made, and the Duke only obtained possession by sending over a squadron under Col. Richard Nicolls, his deputy governor, to whom Stuyvesant surrendered New Netherland on September 8, 1664.

On June 23 and 24, 1664, the Duke of York made a grant of New Jersey to Lord John Berkley and Sir George Carteret, both of whom were tried and true cavaliers who had fought in the King s cause and were prominent figures at the Court of Charles II.

The Duke apparently did not know the value of the land, nor the extent of the territory, that was included in the grant. We can imagine Nicolls chagrin when he learned that the Duke had given away nearly the entire seacoast and a tract of about eight thousand square miles in extent, more than two months before he had wrested it from the Dutch.

After several settlements had been made in the northern and eastern parts of the tract granted to Carteret and Berkley, war broke out between England and Holland and a Dutch squadron of five vessels appearing off New York, the fortress surrendered on July 30, 1673, and the Dutch again became masters of New Jersey, and the officials of the various settlements took the oaths of allegiance to the Dutch crown.

By reason of the conquest by the Dutch, the English government in New York and New Jersey came to an end and the grant to Carteret and Berkley was, according to the principles of English law, rendered void.

On February 9, 1674, by the treaty of peace between the Dutch and English, New York and New Jersey again became subject to the English rule, and on June 29, 1674, the Duke obtained a new patent from his royal brother. This was a new grant and not a grant confirming the former one, as it made no reference to it.

During the war with Holland, Lord Berkley doubtless realizing that his grant was forfeited and that he would encounter much difficulty in obtaining a renewal of it from the Duke, agreed to sell his half interest in New Jersey as above noted, the consideration being 1000, and the sale being consummated on March 18, 1673-4.

As stated before, the Duke of York did not realize until it was too late, that in making the grant to Carteret and Berkley he had done great harm to himself by giving away a large part of his territory, but the new grant restored it all to him again and he determined to place the entire territory under the jurisdiction of his governor, Edmund Andros. However, Sir George Carteret brought such pressure to bear on the Duke that on July 29, 1674, he made a second grant to Carteret. This one did not cover all of New Jersey as did the first, but included that portion of the province north of line running from a creek called Barnegat, to a certain creek in Delaware river next adjoining to and below a certain creek in Delaware river called Renkokus Kill (Rancocas creek), which was probably Pensauken [sic] creek. The Duke claimed that this grant and the first likewise, did not convey the right of government, although Carteret claimed that the right of government followed the soil and proceeded to set up a government of his own.

In the meantime on February 10, 1675, Edward Byllinge, having become financially embarrassed, made an assignment to three Quackers [sic], William Penn, Gawen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas, in trust for the benefit of his creditors.

The trustees instituted an investigation of the transactions between Fenwick and Byllinge and found that the former had only a one-tenth interest in the New Jersey lands, while their principal was in fact the owner of nine-tenths of the conveyance. Fenwick at first resisted this award but in 1682 relinquished his claim to any further right and estate in the moiety of New Jersey. These trustees handled the matter in a very able manner. They divided Byllinge s interest into one hundred shares, or proprieties, and from the sale of a small portion of the shares received sufficient to pay the creditors in full. They framed a set of laws and plan of colonization under date of March 3, 1676, entitled The Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors, Freeholders and Inhabitants of the Province of West New jersey in America, comprising forty-four chapters, the last thirty-two chapters being The Charter of Fundamental Laws of West New Jersey, agreed upon, signed by one hundred and fifty-one persons.

Up to this time the entire province had been held in common by Carteret and Berkley and later by Carteret and Byllinge, when, however, new interests appeared it became necessary to definitely establish the exact shares of the two principals.

On July 1st, 1676, William Penn, Gawen Lawrie, Nicholas Lucas and Edward Byllinge executed a deed with Carteret known as the Quintipartite Deed, in which the territory was divided into two parts, East Jersey being taken by Carteret and West Jersey by Byllinge and his trustees. In this the trustees showed their foresight, for while the land covered by the Duke s second grant was divided as nearly equally as possible, the deed was drawn in such a manner that Carteret also conveyed to the trustees all his interest in that part of New Jersey which was south of the southern boundary of the second grant. The Quintipartite Deed and the original copy of the grants and concessions bearing the signatures of the one hundred and fifty-one signers, is in the possession of the Council of Proprietors of West Jersey.

The Proprietors then sent five commissioners to New Jersey to represent them in selling land and laying out towns, their instructions being dated 6th month 18, 1676, so that it will be seen that no attempt was made at colonization until after the Duke s second grant was obtained. Before going to West Jersey, the commissioners thought it best to call on the Duke s representative, Governor Andros, in New York, who would not concede that the proprietors had obtained the right of government under the Duke s second grant to Carteret and would not allow the commissioners to proceed, until after they had consented to take out warrants as his subordinates.

The Duke thereupon executed a grant to William Penn, Gawen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas in trust for Edward Byllinge of all of New Jersey west and south of the division line mentioned in the Quintipartite Deed. Whatever rights the Proprietors of West Jersey had lost by reason of the Dutch reconquest were fully restored to them by virtue of the Duke s second grant to Carteret and the grant to the trustees of Byllinge. This grant also conveyed the right of government of West Jersey to Edward Byllinge and later the Duke made a grant to Sir George Carteret, grandson and heir of the original Proprietor, giving to him the right of government of East Jersey. Governors were appointed by the Proprietors until 1688.

Byllinge having died in 1687 his heirs sold all his interest in West New Jersey, including the right of government, to Dr. Daniel Coxe, a physician to the Queen of Charles II, and afterward to Queen Anne. And he at once took great interest not only in the government of West Jersey but also in the Council of Proprietors. The Duke of York, having ascended the throne as James II, brought such pressure to bear on the Proprietors that they surrendered the right of government to the Crown with Andros as Governor, although Coxe was largely interested in the management of business until James was deposed, when proprietary government was again resumed.

On March 4, 1691, Dr. Daniel Coxe conveyed all his rights and title to lands in America, consisting of over twenty-four shares or rights to Propriety in West Jersey, two shares to Propriety in East Jersey, and large tracts of land in East and West Jersey, New England and Pennsylvania, together with the right of government of West Jersey to forty-eight persons who formed the West Jersey Society. This society appointed the governors from the time that the reign of James II ended until the surrender of government to the Crown in 1702. Many thousands of acres of land were surveyed to the Society and sold by them. The rights of Propriety in West Jersey were held by the West Jersey Society for nearly one hundred and twenty-five years, when they were conveyed to Benjamin B. Cooper on June 28, 1814.

After the fall of James the vexatious customs question which had been vigorously enforced by Andros, and continuously resisted by the inhabitants of New Jersey, came up again and the Proprietors, who had obtained further legal opinion that no duties could be levied on them, petitioned the Lords of Trade that free ports of entry might be established in the Province. In this they were refused by the English Ministry. They then proceeded to make a test case by attempting to load The Hester, a vessel from Perth Amboy, but the vessel was seized by the Lord Bellemont [sic], Governor of New York, who sent a force of forty soldiers and took the vessel to New York, where it was sold by inch of candle by direction of the Governor of New York to satisfy the sailors claims for wages. The Proprietors Government appealed to the Court of Kings Bench where the matter dragged along in the courts for several years, when a verdict was finally rendered giving several hundred pounds damages, and Perth Amboy was established a free port of entry.

Just at this time King William s lawyers advised him that the grant of government by the Duke of York was void as under the English law no mesne lord could convey power of government but by consent of the king. The Proprietors decided that the best course to pursue was to again surrender the right of government to the Crown with the understanding that their rights to the land would be respected. This was finally consummated in 1702.

Titles to land were at first confirmed by the Commissioners sent over by the Proprietors from England, but on the return of some of the Commissioners to England, the General Assembly confirmed the titles until 1687, when the time of the General Assembly being taken up with the matters of legislation it decided to be bothered with Proprietary matters no longer and requested the Proprietors to choose a convenient number of persons themselves to transact their own business. On February 14, 1687 8, a meeting of the Proprietors was held at Burlington, at which a definite agreement for the establishment of the Council of Proprietors was drawn up and signed, the business of the Council being the granting of title to unlocated land. Five members are elected at Burlington at noon on the tenth day of April of each year. The election formerly was held on the main street, beneath a willow tree which has long since disappeared, a depression in the pavement shows where it formerly stood, and it is at this spot that the election is held. Four members are elected annually at Gloucester at noon on the thirteenth day of April. The election was formerly held beneath a buttonwood tree, which stood beside a walnut tree on the Gloucester Green opposite the Court House about twenty or twenty five yards from the wreck of the British warship Augusta. The bark of the buttonwood tree was used for the ballots. Both trees have been blown down and the meetings are now held at the spot where the trees stood, which is located by an unmarked post. Each person holding a one-thirty-second share of a propriety is entitled to vote.

The meetings of the Council of Proprietors are held at the Surveyor General s Office in Burlington on the first Tuesday of May, August, November and February. A right of propriety consists in the ownership of a share or a portion of one of the one hundred shares into which Edward Byllinge s interest in the Western Division of New Jersey was divided. From time to time dividends consisting of rights to so many acres of unlocated land in West Jersey are made to the holders of the rights of Propriety, (that is the Proprietors). These rights to unlocated land are known as Proprietory rights and differ from, but grow out of Rights of Propriety.

Any one desiring to obtain the ownership of a tract of unlocated land must first ascertain the number of acres in the tract, then go to a Proprietor and buy from him a deed for the rights to the required number of acres of unlocated land. The next step is to have the Deputy Surveyor to survey the tract and make a return of it together with a map, which is filed in the Surveyor General s Office at least fourteen days before the next meeting of the Council of Proprietors. The survey is then inspected by the Surveyor General and the calculations are verified by him, and if not opposed, or caveated the Surveyor General lays it before the Council who pass the survey and order it to be recorded. This perfects the title in the person to whom the survey has been made.

If caveated all parties are heard upon the merits of the case and the decision of the Council is final.

A few years ago the State of New Jersey enlarged the State House grounds at Trenton, and desired to include an island in the Delaware River. Upon application the Council of Proprietors granted a survey to the State for the island after it had complied with all the formalities that would have been required of an individual for its acquisition.

One of the record books in the Surveyor General s Office at Burlington formerly belonged to some other corporation before it came into the possession of the Proprietors. On the front page of the book is the following: Here begins the Disbursements of the Corporation by virtue of their Charter from the King s Most Excellent Mat y. Dat, 7th of Febru. 1661. One of the entries is as follows:

Between April and July 1662
Paid Mr. John Harwood assign of Mr. Hezekiah Usher of Boston in New England Ma sht according to a Bill of Exchange drawn on this corporation by the Com rs for y e United Collonys of New England aforesaid dat New Plymouth Sept 12th 1661 the sum of eigth hundred Pounds w th for y e like sum to be Received of the said Mr. Usher there according to form agreem t mad e w th him by the said Com rs and is for defraying y e charges of printing y e Byble in y e Indian Language and other necessary disbursements for propagating y e Gospel amongst y e natives there the sum of
-- S -- D
800 -- 0 -- 0.

Another entry shows the payment of the cost of printing pamphlets on the Progress of Christianity among the Indians of New England.

It is thought by some that the book may have belonged to the Governor and Company for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England, a corporation which afterwards became known as the New England Company.

For many years there was a dispute between the East Jersey and West Jersey Proprietors over the location of the division line between East and West Jersey. The Quintipartite Deed recites that the division line should extend from the most northerly point mentioned in the grant from the Duke of York to Carteret and Berkley ( the Northermost Branch of the said Bay or River of Dela Ware which is in forty-one Degrees and forty minutes of latitude ) unto the most southwardly poynt of the East syde of Little Egge Harbour.

In 1687 George Keith attempted to run the line commencing at Little Egg Harbor Inlet, but finding that he was running too far to the westward he ceased after running the line about sixty miles. In 1688 Dr. Coxe and Robert Barclay, Governors of the two Provinces, entered into an agreement whereby East Jersey was to contain 2392 square miles and West Jersey 5403 square miles. This, however, was not in accord with the spirit or the letter of the Quintipartite Deed.

In 1718 the Legislature appointed a commission to run the partition line, but the commission could find no branch of the Delaware at 41 40 .

In 1720 John Chapman retraced the Keith line. In 1743 John Lawrence ran a line at random from Little Egg Harbor to the north station at 41 40 , but the inlet had moved to the southward since the signing of the Quintipartite Deed and his commencing point was much farther south than that of Keith and was unsatisfactory to the West Jersey Proprietors.

In 1769 a commission appointed by the King fixed the Mackhackamack as the most northerly branch and where that stream falls into the Delaware River (in 41 21 37 of north latitude) as the north station point.

The West Jersey Proprietors claim that the division line should extend from the Mackhackamack to the commencing point of the Keith line.

In 1854 commissions appointed by the legislature to run the boundary line between the counties of Burlington and Ocean fixed the Keith line as run in 1687 as the boundary between the two counties.

Probably no question which came before the Proprietors caused more friction or stirred up more political controversy than did the Partition Line.

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Pamphlet originally published by Camden County Historical Society, CAMDEN HISTORY, Vol. 1, No. 3

Other Links pertaining to the The Council of Proprietors of West Jersey :


Original Inhabitants of New Jersey - History

Old Gloucester County was formed on May 26, 1686 from the third and fourth tenths of the province of West Jersey. Greenwich Township became the first township. Incorporated on March 1, 1694. The original townships formed at that time were Gloucester, Deptford, Greenwich, Waterford, Newton and Egg Harbor. It included present-day Atlantic County and Camden County. Woodbury is the county seat of Gloucester County. Atlantic County set off in 1837. Camden County set off in 1844.

For histories of townships or boroughs in current Gloucester county, see the "Municipalities" section.

Also see "Snippets of History"

NOTE: The history of Gloucester County, New Jersey cannot be told without first having knowledge of the Native American tribes who were living here when the "white men" arrived. The following is from the Lenape (Delaware) Tribe of Indians web site. I highly recommend anyone seriously interested in our early history to visit this site and other links provided.

"The name DELAWARE was given to the people who lived along the Delaware River, and the river in turn was named after Lord de la Warr, the governor of the Jamestown colony. The name Delaware later came to be applied to almost all Lenape people. In our language, which belongs to the Algonquian language family, we call ourselves LENAPE (len-NAH-pay) which means something like "The People." Our ancestors were among the first Indians to come in contact with the Europeans (Dutch, English, & Swedish) in the early 1600s. The Delaware were called the "Grandfather" tribe because we were respected by other tribes as peacemakers since we often served to settle disputes among rival tribes. We were also known for our fierceness and tenacity as warriors when we had to fight, however, we preferred to choose a path of peace with the Europeans and other tribes.

Many of the early treaties and land sales we signed with the Europeans were in our people's minds more like leases. The early Delaware had no idea that land was something that could be sold. The land belonged to the Creator, and the Lenape people were only using it to shelter and feed their people. When the poor, bedraggled people got off their ships after the long voyage and needed a place to live we shared the land with them. They gave us a few token gifts for our people's kindness, but in the mind of the Europeans these gifts were actually the purchase price for the land.

Our Delaware people signed the first Indian treaty with the newly formed United States Government on September 17, 1778. Nevertheless, through war and peace, our ancestors had to continue to give up their lands and move westward (first to Ohio, then to Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, and finally, Indian Territory, now Oklahoma). One small band of Delawares left our group in the late 1700s and through different migrations are today located at Anadarko, Oklahoma. Small contingents of Delawares fled to Canada during a time of extreme persecution and today occupy two reserves in Ontario (The Delaware Nation at Moraviantown and The Munsee-Delaware Nation)."

Abstracts of Old South Jersey
by Amos J. Peaslee
Address Before The Philadelphia Geographical Society
at Mickleton, New Jersey October 21, 1944
[my thanks to the family of Amos J. Peaslee who provided this information]

Original Claims to New Jersey included those made by the British beginning in 1497. Dutch claims began with the voyages and settlements of Henry Hudson who entered the Delaware Bay on August 28, 1609. The first Dutch settlers were apparently all massacred by the Indians, and was followed by another settlement (of Dutch immigrants) who arrived in 1631. The Swedish settlements in Southern New Jersey followed soon after the arrival of the Dutch in 1638. These Swedes landed first at Inlopen (also called Hindlopen) on the western side of the Bay. They told the Dutch that there were merely stopping there on their way to the West Indies, but they took possession and founded a settlement called "Christina" in honor of the Queen. The Swedes began fortifying their claims by purchasing land from the Indians. In the course of a few years they had bought from the Indian tribes, and paid for, all the land from Cape May to Raccoon Creek.

The total number of Swedish settlers in Southern Jersey is not known, but in 1693, long after the Swedes ceased to exercise any control over the country, it was reported by Peter Stuyvesant that there were 1,000 Swedes in the territory who retained their Swedish language and customs.

In 1651 the Dutch built Fort Casimer on the site of New Castle. In 1653 John Rysing, who was deputized by the Swedish Government, demanded the surrender, and took possession of this fortification for the Swedes. Governor Stuyvesant of New Netherland dispatched a force of 7 vessels and 600 men who brought about the complete surrender and subjugation of New Sweden.

The subjugation of New Netherland in America by the British took place in August of 1664, transferring sovereignty over the territory of South Jersey from the Dutch Crown to the British Crown. Although this sovereignty was interrupted twice for brief periods of time, it was finally restored to the British Crown by the Treaty of February 9, 1674, and New Jersey continued as British until the American Revolution of 1775.

Original Condition of the County
The descriptions by early historians what the first settlers found here are magnificent and startling. From Raccoon Creek to "Makles" Creek, now known as Mantua Creek--which is the land in this precise area--we are told that tobacco grew luxuriously. There were great quantities of walnuts, chestnuts, peaches, cypresses, mulberries, fish trees, and many other rare trees to which Campanius the historian says "No names can be given as they are not found anywhere else except on this river." He also said that the Delaware was alive with whales, sharks and sea spiders, and that its shores were infested "with a large horrible serpent which is called a rattlesnake which has a head like that of a dog and can bite off a man's leg as clean as if it had been hewn down with an axe."
The aborigines of this region were called the "Lenni-Lenape" or the "first people." The Indian name for the Delaware River was "Lannape-Whittuck," or "Stream of the Lennape." The particular tribe of Indians who lived along Raccoon Creek which flows through Swedesboro were known as the Naraticons. Those who lived along Mantua Creek were the Manateses. The Lenni-Lenapes were a vigorous but peaceful tribe. They had been demilitarized, so to speak under a treaty with the Iroquois. Many relics of the Indian settlements along those creeks, including cooking utensils, arrow heads and other weapons may still be found by anyone possessing sufficient curiosity and diligence.

Tangle of Early Titles
The ten years which followed the restoration of New Jersey to the British in 1674 were disturbed by many conflicting claims of title. Although the British Crown grants of 1606 had already disposed of most or all of the territory of New Jersey to the Virginia Company and the Plymouth Company, nevertheless Charles II, upon his restoration, granted all of both New York and New Jersey to his brother the Duke of York, who sold his rights in the territory of New Jersey to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Carteret was appointed Governor of New Jersey and came over with settlers in August 1665 landing at Elizabeth. They found already here another British Governor, Colonel Nichols, who had not been told by the Duke of York of his sale of New Jersey to Berkeley and Cataret. Nichols called New Jersey "Albania." He thought highly of it and protested the sale in no uncertain terms, but without avail. Conflicting claims of titles to lands arose by reason of grants which had been made by Col. Nichols and also through purchases from the Indians and the old titles acquired under Dutch and Swedish rule. Berkeley became alarmed regarding his investment and sold out his entire interest in March 1673 to John Fenwick and Edward Byllinge, two Quakers living in England for 1,000 pounds cash.

The Division of East and West Jersey
The half of New Jersey which the two Quakers Fenwick and Byllinge had bought from Lord Berkeley was an undivided interest, but after 1673-74, Cateret obtained a new grant which divided the State geographically and gave him the northern portion of the State. A disagreement arose between Fenwick and Byllinge which was eventually resolved by William Penn who arbitrated the matter. Byllinge became financially embarrassed and assigned the property to trustees who included William Penn. Out of all of this arose a new settlement, and a new division of territory on July 1, 1676 into "East" and "West" Jersey. The new line ran from Little Egg Harbor to a point in the Delaware River in 41 degrees of north latitude.

John Fenwick and Early Quaker Settlers
All of this division of land took place while most of the grantees were still in England. John Fenwick, however, left England in 1675 before the division of East and West Jersey occurred, sailing on the ship Griffith with a group of Quakers who settled at Salem. William Penn did not leave England until seven years later.
In 1677 and 1678 five other vessels with 800 emigrants, mostly Quakers, arrived. A large number disembarked at Raccoon Creek near Swedesboro and others proceeded farther north and settled at Burlington, originally called Beverly, then Budlington, and finally Burlington. Friends Meetings were held in Burlington in 1677 in tents. A Quaker Meeting House was built in Salem in 1680, and in Burlington in 1682. At this point proprietary interests in West Jersey were to a large extent in Quaker hands.
The type of government which developed in all of New Jersey was extremely liberal. In fact it was considered later by the Crown of England to be revolutionary. The capital of West Jersey was fixed at Burlington, and an Assembly was convened there in 1681. These early New Jersey colonial governments, asserted, 100 years before the American Revolution, substantially the same principle of sovereignty of the people themselves, which was later set forth in the Declaration of Independence.

The Origin of Gloucester County
It was during this period of relatively independent existence from about 1680 to about 1702 that the local units of government in Gloucester County were created. The County is the only one of the State, and is among few in the entire United States, which originated directly in action of its own freeholders and inhabitants -- it was not created by the provisional government of West Jersey.
Gloucester County began its existence on May 28, 1686 with a meeting of its proprietors, freeholders and inhabitants who formally decided to organize a government and to establish a "Constitution of Gloucester County." The colonial legislature which had been meeting at Burlington was not in session at the time and did nothing whatever either to authorize the creation of the County or to interfere with its existence after it was organized. In 1692 the legislature recognized formally the existence of Gloucester County as a separate entity.
The County seat was at the City of Gloucester until moved to Woodbury during or about the time of the Revolutionary War. The first court was held in Hugg's Tavern in Gloucester. Betsy Ross was later married in that Tavern. The building stood in Gloucester County until about 1933. [The fireplace of that tavern, can be found at the Gloucester County Historical Society].
Gloucester County for many years extended entirely across the State and included all of Atlantic County and all of Camden County. The territory now in Atlantic County was not separated from Gloucester County until 1837 which was 151 years after the founding of Gloucester County. Camden County was not created until 1844. HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

The inhabitants of the County of Gloucester, in New-Jersey, May 18th 1775, having elected Robert Friend Price, John Hinchman, John Cooper, Elijah Clark, Joseph Ellis, John Sparks, and Joseph Hugg, or any three of them, to represent them in the Provincial Conventions, to be held at Trenton on the 23d of this instant, do unanimously instruct them in the manner following. [n. s. 1775].

The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799. John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor. [The text is from the circular sent to Lieut. Col. William De Hart, of the Second New Jersey Regiment, who was assigned to Bergen County. The letter is in the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison and is from a photostat kindly furnished by Julian F. Thompson, of Bridgeport, Conn. The circular was sent also to Col. Matthias Ogden, of the First New Jersey Regiment, who was assigned to Essex County Col. Richard Butler, of the Ninth Pennsylvania Regiment, assigned to Hunterdon Col. Israel Shreve, of the Second New Jersey Regiment, to Burlington Lieut. Col. Francis Barber, of the Fifth New Jersey Regiment, to Gloucester Lieut. Col. Edward Carrington, of the First Continental Artillery, to Sussex Lieut. Col. Caleb North, of the Ninth Pennsylvania Regiment, to Monmouth Lieut. Col. Isaac Sherman, of the Fourth Connecticut Regiment, to Middlesex Maj. Henry Lee, of the Partisan Light Dragoons, to Salem, Cumberland, and Cape May and Maj. Daniel Platt, of the Fourth New Jersey Regiment, to Somerset.] USE THE SEARCH ENGINE LINK above, and search for one of the names mentioned above.

The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Volume 3
J. Adams to the President of Congress. Paris, May 9, 1780. John Adams proposes: "Thirdly. That all the country from the Connecticut to the river Delaware, containing the whole of New York, Long Island, and the Jerseys, with some parts of two other provinces indenting with them, shall return to Great Britain. " [To see this document in its entirety, visit "American Memory" and search for the words "shall return to Great Britain." The first document will be this one].

Letters of Delegates to Congress: Volume 18 March 1, 1781 - August 31, 1781 --Abraham Clark to Elias Dayton [mentions Joseph Hugg, John Cooper]

George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 3g Varick Transcripts George Washington, November 4, 1781, General Orders [mentions Lieut. John Blair, of the First New Jersey Regiment and the pardoning of George Leadbetter, of the Jersey Brigade, Condemned to suffer Death by the sentence of a General Court Martial of their respective Lines]

Letters of Delegates to Congress: Volume 19 August 1, 1782 - March 11, 1783 --Abraham Clark to Joseph Cooper

Letters of Delegates to Congress: Volume 21 October 1, 1783 - October 31, 1784
John Beatty to Israel Shreve [of Gloucester County]

Address of the Republican committee of the County of Gloucester, New-Jersey . Gloucester County, December 15, 1800. [mentions Gloucester Co. residents: Mathew Gill, Thomas Carpenter, John Miller, John Blackwood candidates of the 7th congress: WILLIAM HELMS, of Suffex. JAMES MOTT, of Monmouth EBENEZER ELMORE, of Cumberland HENRY SOUTHARD, of Somerset and and JOHN CONDIT, of Essex signed by JAMES SLOAN, Chairman and JOHN EVAUL, Secretary.

Draft of roads in New Jersey (1777) - image shows roads of Camden and Gloucester counties, New Jersey Described in Samuel S. Smith's The fight for the Delaware, under the title Route the Hessians took from Coopers Ferry to Red Bank. [GIF file]

West-Jersey Dragoons A few more able bodied men are required to fill up Capt. Step. Goldsmit's Company---"A" West Jersey Dragoons. [Poster 1864] Civil War



The Lenni-Lenape Historical Society
(Native Americans)

West Jersey History Project - A Must SEE web site with documents and photographs


Did You Know: Women and African Americans Could Vote in NJ before the 15th and 19th Amendments?

Suffrage envoys from San Francisco on their way to petition Congress in 1915 are greeted by New Jersey suffragists. Photo in the National Woman's Party Records (I:159), Library of Congress (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Suffrage_envoys_from_San_Francisco_159032v.jpg)

Did you know that some women and African Americans won and lost the right to vote before the 15th and 19th Amendments to the Constitution became law?

Case Study: New Jersey

The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote, but some New Jersey women could vote as early as 1776. New Jersey’s first constitution in 1776 gave voting rights to “all inhabitants of this colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds … and have resided within the county … for twelve months.” In 1790 the legislature reworded the law to say “he or she,” clarifying that both men and women had voting rights. But only single women could vote because married women could not own property. Still, many unmarried women voted in New Jersey in the 1790s and the very early 1800s.

African Americans in the state could vote if they met the residency and property requirements. In 1797, the New Jersey government required voters to be free inhabitants. We do not know if enslaved African Americans voted before this law was passed -- the property requirements made that unlikely, but no law specifically prohibited them from doing so.

In 1807, the state legislature restricted suffrage (voting rights) to tax-paying, white male citizens. This was done to give the Democratic-Republican Party an advantage in the 1808 presidential election. Women often voted for the opposing Federalist Party, so taking away women’s voting rights helped the Democratic-Republicans. This law also took voting rights away from African Americans.

New Jersey was not alone in granting and then taking away the vote from women and African Americans around the turn of the 1800s. In 1870, the 15th Amendment to the Constitution was passed. It stated that “the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” But, it excluded women and those considered non-citizens at the time. In 1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was passed. It stated that “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex,” giving women the right to vote. Despite these Constitutional Amendments, laws and customs generally prevented African Americans from voting until the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1965 guaranteed access to the vote.


Learn about Women's Struggle for the Vote with lesson plans from Teaching with Historic Places: