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Manchester Observer

Manchester Observer


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De Manchester Observer ble dannet i januar 1818 av en gruppe radikaler som inkluderte John Knight, James Wroe og John Saxton. I løpet av tolv måneder solgte avisen 4000 eksemplarer i uken. Det har blitt hevdet at avisen var banebrytende på populærjournalistikk med sin rasende stil rettet mot en litterær arbeiderklasse.

Selv om avisen startet som en lokal avis, ble den solgt i 1819 i de fleste store byene i Storbritannia. Henry Hunt ringte til Manchester Observer "den eneste avisen i England som jeg kjenner, rettferdig og ærlig viet til slike reformer som ville gi folket hele sine rettigheter."

Til tross for salgstallene, Manchester Observer var alltid i økonomiske vanskeligheter. Eierne hadde problemer med å overtale lokale virksomheter til å annonsere varene sine i avisen. De fleste ukene utgjorde annonsene bare en av de tjuefire kolonnene.

Journalister som jobbet for avisen ble stadig saksøkt for injurier. Flere av journalistene deres, inkludert John Wroe, John Saxton og TJ Evans hadde blitt sendt i fengsel for artikler de hadde skrevet om kritikk av regjeringen.

I mars 1819 var tre av mennene involvert i Manchester Observer, Joseph Johnson, John Knight og James Wroe dannet Patriotic Union Society. Alle de ledende radikale i Manchester sluttet seg til organisasjonen. Johnson ble utnevnt til sekretær i Society og Wroe ble kasserer. Hovedmålet for Patriotic Union Society var å skaffe parlamentariske reformer, og sommeren 1819 bestemte den seg for å invitere Henry Orator Hunt til å tale på et offentlig møte i Manchester. Mennene ble fortalt at dette skulle være "et møte i fylket Lancashire, enn i Manchester alene. Jeg tror at ved god ledelse kan den største forsamlingen som noen gang er sett i dette landet bli anskaffet."

James Wroe, redaktør for Manchester Observer, var på St. Peter's Field og beskrev angrepet på mengden i neste utgave av avisen og antas å være den første personen som beskrev hendelsen som Peterloo -massakren. Wroe produserte også en serie med brosjyrer med tittelen Peterloo -massakren: En trofast fortelling om hendelsene. Brosjyrene, som dukket opp i fjorten uker på rad fra 28. august, pris to ganger, hadde et stort opplag og spilte en viktig rolle i propagandakrigen mot myndighetene. Regjeringen ønsket hevn, og James Wroe ble arrestert og siktet for å ha produsert en forførende publikasjon. Han ble funnet skyldig og dømt til tolv måneders fengsel, pluss en bot på 100 pund.

Med ankomsten av Manchester Guardian i 1821 Manchester Observer besluttet å slutte å publisere. I sin siste utgave skrev redaktøren: "Jeg vil med respekt foreslå at Manchester Guardian, å kombinere prinsipper for fullstendig uavhengighet og nidkjær tilknytning til reformsaken, med aktiv og livlig ledelse, er et tidsskrift på alle måter som er verdig din tillit og støtte. "

Morgenen den 16. ble hyllet med jubel av de mange tusen, hvis følelser var sterkt begeistret ved anledningen. I en tidlig periode kom tallene inn fra forskjellige og fjerne deler av landet, for å være vitne til den største og mest gledelige forsamlingen av briter, som noensinne er registrert i årgangene i vår historie. Fra Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Middleton og hele det omliggende landet; fra de fjernere byene Leeds, Sheffield, etc. kom tusenvis av villige velgere til hellig frihet; og i perioden da patriotiske Mr. Hunt og hans venner hadde tatt sin stasjon på hustings, antas det at ikke mindre enn 150 000 mennesker var samlet i området nær Peterskirken.

Mr. Hunt steg opp i hustingene omtrent halv ett, og etter noen foreløpige ordninger fortsatte han med å ta opp den enorme mengden og anbefalte fred og orden for deres regjering. Selv om vi var engasjert og uten at skyggen av uorden oppstår eller sannsynligvis vil forekomme, ble vi overrasket, men ikke bekymret, da vi oppfattet at en infanterisøyle tok besittelse av en åpning i forsamlingen.

Vår frykt ble hevet til skrekk ved utseendet til Manchester og Salford Yeomanry Cavalry, som kom galopperende inn i området, og fortsatte å danne seg i kø klar til handling; De ble heller ikke forsinket lenge fra deres helvetes hensikt - de spesielle konstablene ble kalt inn fra deres tidligere stasjoner - buglen lød anklagen - og det oppstod et drap og blodbad som ettertiden vil nøle med å tro, og som vil overgi forfatterne og tilhenger av denne stygg og blodig tragedien til den overraskede verden. Menn, kvinner og barn, uten forskjell på alder eller kjønn, ble ofre for disse monstrene.

Folket i mengden var så kompakt og stod fast at de ikke kunne nå hustingene uten å stoppe. Få, om noen av møtene, enda ennå, antok at denne kampsporten var ment for noe mer enn å sikre Hunt, Johnson, Knight og Moorhouse, som de hadde warrants for. Mr. Hunt ble bedt om å overgi seg, noe han tilbød å gjøre til en sorenskriver, men ikke til Manchester Yeomanry Cavalry. En herre i kommisjonen presenterte seg, og Mr. Hunt erkjenner sin autoritet og dro til møte for sorenskriverne; hvor Mr. Johnson og Saxton ble ført, og derfra ledet, sammen med Mr. Hunt til New Bayley fengsel; Mr. Knight slapp unna, men ble senere arrestert i sitt eget hus, og Moorhouse ble kort tid senere pågrepet på Flying Horse Inn.

Det er umulig for oss å fastslå omfanget av tap av liv og lemmer som dermed har vært uønsket og umenneskelig begynt - folk fløy i alle retninger for å unngå disse hårhjernede leiemorderne, som ble støttet av løsrivelser fra de 15. husarer. Sistnevnte delte imidlertid ikke død og sår med samme liberale hånd som våre bymenn.


Biblioteker Historiske aviser

Vi holder et stort utvalg av Manchester -aviser på mikrofilm i første etasje i Central Library, inkludert Manchester Evening News. Denne listen viser hvilke titler som finnes i hvert av skapene. Ingen forhåndsbestilling er nødvendig for de fleste av disse, men vær oppmerksom på at noen titler holdes i de sterke rommene og derfor må bestilles på forhånd.

Avisskap 1 med mindre annet er angitt:

Annonsør (dekker Prestwich, Whitefield, Radcliffe, Crumpsall og Cheetham Hill), 1992 til 1997
The Alliance Weekly News, 1854 til 1870 (bestill på forhånd)
Anderton 's Universal Advertiser 1762 til 1789 (diverse MF 689: skap 8-9)
Anti-Corn Law Circular, 1839 til 1841
Area News, 1995, 1997 til 1999
Ashton Reporter, 1855 til 1997 (bestill på forhånd)
Aston 's Exchange Herald, 1809 til 1826
Bolton News, 2007 til nå (tilgjengelig på NewsBank)
Britannia, 1834 til 1836
Britannia Advertiser for Liverpool eller Manchester, 11. januar 1837, desember 1838
British Worker, 5. til 17. mai 1926
Bury Times, 2007 til nå (tilgjengelig på NewsBank)
City Life, 1984 til 1990 -tallet (bestill på forhånd)
Comus eller Momus, 1877 til 1882 (forhåndsbestill for 1877 til mars 1880)
Cotton Factory Times, 1885 til 1937 (bestill på forhånd)
Cowdroy's Manchester Gazette, 1796 til 1829
Daily War Telegraph and General Advertiser, 21. oktober til desember 1854, 2. april 1855
Didsbury og Withington Observer, 21. mai 1914
Droylsden Journal, 1854 til 1855
East Manchester Reporter, 1976 til 1980, 1991 til 1997
Free Lance, 1866 til 1880
Gorton Reporter, 1873 til 1970
Hulme Advertiser, Chorlton-on-Medlock og Stretford Observer, 21. mai 1870 til 6. mai 1871
Lancashire Journal med historien til Den hellige bibel, oktober 1735 til 16. mars 1740
Levenshulme Echoes, 1893
Siste nytt, 1882
Manchester og Salford Gazette, 1873 til 1874
Manchester og Salford Advertiser, 1825 til 1848
Manchester Chronicle, 30. november 1917 til desember 1950
Manchester City News, 1864 til 1958 (avisskap 1-2)

Avisskap 3 med mindre annet er angitt:

Manchester Courier, 1825 til 1916 (avisskap 2-3)
Manchester Daily Telegraph and Northern Counties Advertiser, mai til august, september til november 1855
Manchester, Liverpool & amp; Northern Counties Advertiser, mai til oktober 1873
Manchester Election Chronicle, 23. til 28. mars 1857
Manchester Evening Chronicle, 1897 til 1963 (avisskap 3-4)

Avisskap 4 med mindre annet er angitt:

Manchester Evening Mail, 1876 til 1915
Manchester Evening News, 1868 til Current (aviskabinett 8-16)
Manchester Evening News Sports Pinks, juli 1971 til august 1998 pluss spesialutgaver (kabinett 15)
Manchester Examiner, 1846 til 1894
Manchester Express, januar til juni 1847
Manchester Free Gazette, 1913 til 1932 (bestill på forhånd)
Manchester Free Press og Northern Counties Advertiser, 6. oktober 1894
Manchester Gazette and General Advertiser, 1881
Manchester Halfpenny Express, 13. juni 1855

Avisskap 5 med mindre annet er angitt:


Manchester Herald, 1792 til 1793, 1834, 1836, 1843 (forhåndsbestill for 1792 til 1793)
Manchester Iris, 1822 til 1823
Manchester Magazine, 1737 til 1760
Manchester Mercury, 1752 til 1830 (andre år tilgjengelig på British Newspapers Archive)
Manchester Metro News, 1991 til 2000
Manchester Observer, 1818 til 1821
Manchester -programmet, 1872
Manchester Shipping Telegraph og Daily Commercial Advertiser, 13. juli til desember 1897
Manchester børsliste, 1921 til 1935, 1963 til 1974
Manchester Telegraph and Weekly Universal Advertiser, 19. juli til 16. august 1803
Manchester Times, 1828 til 1848 (ufullstendig)
Manchester Times og Stretford Chronicle, 27. desember 1825
Manchester Weekly Advertiser, 1854 til 1860
Manchester Weekly Express and Guardian, 1860 til 1861 (bestill på forhånd)
Manchester Weekly Journal, 1724 til 1725 (diverse MF 146: skap 8-9)
Manchester Weekly and General Advertiser, 8. mai til 12. juni 1880
Manchester Weekly Post, 1875 til 1887
Manchester Weekly Times, 1861 til 1922
Manchester Weekly Times Supplement, 1862 til 1900
Middleton og North Manchester Guardian, 1992 til 1999

Avisskap 6 med mindre annet er angitt:

Morning Chronicle 1823 til 1845 (bestill på forhånd)
Morning News, 14. september til desember 1882
Moss Side District News mai 1895, 17., 24. april, 1.15. Mai, 18. september 1897
Moss Side Weekly Review and District Advertiser 8. juli, 9. september, 4. november 1904
Moston, Middleton og Blackley Guardian 1977 til 1980 (avisskap 5-6)
Moston, Middleton, Blackley og Crumpsall Express 1992 til 1999
Northern Athlete, 5. april 1882
Northern Express, 1901 til 1902
Northern Express og Lancashire Daily Post, 1. desember 1821
Northenden News, mai til september 1902
Prescott's Manchester Journal, 1772 til 1781
Prestwich og Whitefield Guide, 30. juli 2007 til nå (tilgjengelig på NewsBank)
South Manchester Chronicle, 1889 til 1894
South Manchester Express/Advertiser, 1992 til 2000
South Manchester Gazette, 1885 til 1888
South Manchester Reporter, 1993, 1997 til 2011
War Express og Daily Advertiser - Manchester Express og Daily Adv, 24. oktober 1854, 8. januar 1855
Wardle 's Manchester Observer, 5. juni til 3. juli 1819
Wardle 's Manchester Observer or Literary and Political Register 10, 17. juli 1819
Ukentlig forsendelse 1804 til 1928 (bestill på forhånd for 1839 til 1928)
Wheelers Manchester Chronicle, 1781 til 1842
Whitworth 's Manchester Magazine, 20. desember 1737 til 1760
Wythenshawe Recorder Express, 1946 til 1979
Wythenshawe World, 1980 til 1999 (bestill på forhånd)

Lokale tidsskrifter

Vi har også et bredt spekter av lokale tidsskrifter og blader, som er oppført i bibliotekets katalog.


Manchester Times

Sirkulerer gjennom Manchester, Salford, Rochdale, Bolton, Bury, Stockport, Congleton, Macclesfield, Ashton-under-Lyne, Oldham, Wigan, Warrington, Preston, Chorley, Blackburn, Burnley, Halifax osv. Taler for reformer, nedleggelser, fred, frihandel anser maislovene som skadelige for handel, uten å være til nytte: forholder seg til utjevning av sukker og kaffe. Er ikke organ for noen sekt, men er talsmann for religionsfrihet, og er imot alle gaver til religiøse formål. Har tatt til orde for avskaffelse av slaveri, romersk katolsk frigjøring, dårlige lover for Irland, mer liberale fattige lover for Skottland, etablering av frivillige prinsipper, forklarende skoler og skoler for spedbarn, reform av gamle utdanningsinstitusjoner, sanitære forbedringer osv. Anti-Corn Law League har alltid hatt en fast og konsekvent tilhenger i dette tidsskriftet, og dens verdi for dette organet kan ikke overvurderes. Den politiske redaktøren, A. Prentice, er et av de utvalgte bandene som den store bevegelsen kom fra (Mitchell, 1846).

Utstedte et tillegg med tittelen Manchester Literary Times (q.v.), nr. 1-36 (12. februar 1848-28. Oktober 1848).

Avisen "kritiserte egoistiske aristokratiske regjeringer for nasjonens nød:" ... når lover er i drift for å doble prisen på maten, for å senke lønningene sine ved å ekskludere produksjonen av arbeidskraft fra utenlandske markeder og å fortsette hardt. -tjente besparelser på skatter på nesten alle livets nødvendige, det er ikke mindre umenneskelig å nekte dem, når det er nødvendig, en del av den overflod som er produsert av deres arbeid '' (Barker s. 199).

"Sluttet seg til årsaken" til parlamentariske reformer og motarbeidet konsekvent kornloven (Barker, s. 207, 219). Prentice var imot kartisme. Hans program, som ble skissert i 1839, var "frihandel (og spesielt opphevelse av maislovene) treårige parlamenter, med en tredjedel av medlemmene som skal velges årlig hemmelig avstemning om omfordeling av seter og stemmerett basert på en utdanningsprøve" (Cranfield, s.197).

"I 1835 skrev den unge Richard Cobden en serie brev til Manchester Times der han oppfordret byen til å begjære lokalt selvstyre. I hvilken grad pressen i økende grad ble brukt av betydelige politiske og økonomiske grupper, var et bevis på deres erkjennelse av at den presenterte en effektiv måte å formidle et budskap på. Prentices Manchester Times lyktes aldri fordi han var for pedagogisk til å prøve å lede "(Black, s.173).

"Politikken i Manchester Times var for avansert til å tiltrekke seg det vanlige lesertallet til mange av Manchester-produsentene. De foretrakk den mer forsiktige tilnærmingen til Manchester Guardian. Prentices måte var også for pedagogisk til å appellere til mange lesere. På de tjue- femårsdagen for hans inntreden i lokal journalistikk uttrykte han håpet om at leserne som hadde fulgt ham 'med noe av en menighets personlige tilknytning til sin kjærlige pastor'. Når han tok for seg arbeiderklassene ble Prentices tone ofte avgjørende: "Vi har vist med hensyn til mange emner", skrev han i Manchester Gazette i 1825, "at vi har arbeiderklassens velferd på hjertet. Ved å gå inn for det foreslåtte håndhevelse av sabbatslovene, stoler vi på at de vil se at vi blir påvirket av den samme vennlige iveren for deres beste. Vi ønsker å se dem avvenne fra kurs som i mange tilfeller fører til fengsel og til galgen "" ( Donald Read, Press og People).

Kilde: Waterloo-katalogen for engelske aviser og tidsskrifter: 1800-1900.

For denne avisen har vi følgende titler i eller planlagt for vårt digitale arkiv:

  • 1828–29 The Manchester Times
  • 1831–48 The Manchester Times og Gazette
  • 1849–55 Manchester Examiner and Times
  • 1856–57 Manchester Weekly Examiner & Times
  • 1857–1900 Manchester Weekly Times and Examiner

Denne avisen er utgitt av et ukjent forlag i Manchester, Lancashire, England. Det ble digitalisert og først gjort tilgjengelig på British Newspaper Archive i 8. november 2011 . De siste utgavene ble lagt til 30. september 2020 .


Observatøren

Våre redaktører vil gå gjennom det du har sendt inn og avgjøre om artikkelen skal revideres.

Observatøren, Søndagsavisen ble opprettet i 1791, den første søndagsavisen som ble utgitt i Storbritannia. Det er en av Englands kvalitetsaviser, lenge kjent for sin vekt på utenlandsk dekning. Avisen bruker stor plass til kunst, regjering, utdanning og politikk, og den har et verdensomspennende rykte for ansvarlig journalistikk. Observatøren regnes av andre redaktører for å være blant verdens beste aviser. I mange år har det holdt en betydelig stab av utenlandske korrespondenter som leverer nyheter og bakgrunnsbiter for avisets generelt velutdannede lesere, inkludert et stort internasjonalt publikum. Observatøren gikk kort bort fra britisk eierskap i 1976, da det ble solgt til et amerikansk konglomerat, Atlantic Richfield Company. I 1981 ble det returnert til britiske hender da en industrimann, Roland Rowland, kjøpte kontroll. Observatøren ble kjøpt i 1993 av Guardian Media Group, hvorav Vergen avis er også en del.

Denne artikkelen ble sist revidert og oppdatert av Adam Augustyn, administrerende redaktør, referanseinnhold.


The Manchester Observer: Biography of a Radical Newspaper



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Transkripsjon

Manchester Observer Account of Peterloo, 21. august 1819

Fire dager har gått siden den tragiske hendelsen. Vi synes tiden er for kort til å registrere transaksjonene generelt, med en korrekthet, en måned ville være utilstrekkelig til å detaljere alle de individuelle og virkelig beklagelige sakene som har blitt kommunisert til vårt kontor.

Til informasjon for dem som ikke regelmessig leser observatøren, kan det være nødvendig å opplyse at for å gjøre møtet til et helt lovlig møte, som selv ikke magistratene selv kunne anse som et annet, møtet som skulle ha fant sted på forrige mandag ble avstått, og en annen ble kunngjort for mandag sist, fri for innvendingene som skulle eksistere i den første kunngjøringen.

Morgenen var ekstremt fin, og godt beregnet til å gi et enormt forsamlingsoppmøte. Så tidlig som klokken ti var alt i gang, og alle med forventning om et fredelig møte og vi tror heller ikke at én av ti tusen forventet minst skade fra reformatorene for få, om noen butikker, ble stengt .

Samlingen var uten tvil veldig imponerende, men da det ble pålagt stillhet, mens resolusjonen ble tatt om å utnevne Mr Hunt til stolen, ble befolkningen besvart av utstillingen av byboernes sabel. Selv denne demonstrasjonen av fiendtlighet opphisset ingen alarm, tilskuerne forstod at de bare var villige til å undertrykke og oppstyr som kanskje oppstå, og aldri drømme om at de juridiske beskytterne av offentlig fred ville være den første som ulovlig brøt den. >

Før vi forteller det mest useriøse, feige og blodige angrepet, utført av Manchester og Salford Yeomanry Cavalry, og andre, ber vi om å forlate oss for å oppgi noen transaksjoner som fant sted i huset til Mr Buxton.

Magistratene, med en rekke herrer i byen, var her i samråd, og Magistrates mening var delt om riktig fremgangsmåte. Denne vanskeligheten ble imidlertid snart kvitt 30 sivile, bosatte herrer i Manchester, som frivillig tilbød å avlegge ed, at de oppfattet at freden i byen var i fare.

Magistratene ville ikke, og tør ikke tilsynelatende ha handlet, uten at dette lovlige spindelvevplagget skulle dekke deres nakenhet.

Ikke før hadde denne tretti sverget og signert Manchester Magna Charta, enn Boroughreeve ble oppfordret til å montere laderen og lede på spesialkonstablene.

Få, om noen av møtene, ennå, antok at denne kampoppvisningen var ment for noe mer enn å sikre Mr Hunt.

Mr Hunt ble bedt om å overgi seg, noe han tilbød å gjøre for en sorenskriver. Så snart Mr Hunt var sikret, fulgte en scene så virkelig blodig og fryktelig, at ingen penn eller tunge kunne male i sine sanne farger.

Uten å lese Riot Act, som den avskyelige sykofanten, Mr Aston, har den ubarmhjertige uforskammetheten å påstå at ble lest – uten vanlig varsel om å spre seg, kom de inn på denne fredelige og forsvarsløse mengden. Et fantastisk skrik nå leier luften.

Hadde militæret bare angrepet robuste menn, bare såret de som hadde tilbudt dem fornærmelse, hadde mye mindre infamy vært deres lodd. Men det er beryktet at noen av våre herrer ikke bare slo de raskeste, men de tyngste på de som var de mest forsvarsløse. Kvinnene syntes å være de spesielle gjenstandene for raseriet til disse jævla soldatene.

Det ser ut til å være fem eller seks døde og#8211 så mange dødelig sårede, og ikke mindre enn 300 sårede. Det tragiske forholdet er mye forsterket av den universelle overbevisningen om at alt blodet som har blitt sølt, har vært mest viljeløst og unødvendig sølt.

Skal folk bli fortalt når de ber om brød, at de bare skal ha en kule eller sabel? Eller hvis de ber om konstitusjonell frihet, skal de sitte i fengsel? Ja, alt dette hvis noen menn må styre.


Samlet ligaanalyse

Etter min mening trenger enhver form for informasjon om hvordan våre ledere gjorde perspektivet på hvor sterk eller svak ligaen var den sesongen. Uten den nyansen er ikke et helhetlig bilde til stor nytte.

Her er noen grunnleggende beregninger for de siste 8 sesongene:-

  1. Interessant (eller kanskje uinteressant) har gjennomsnittspoengene i ligaen vært ganske konsistente. Så de hjelper ikke så mye som de andre tallene. Det som er bemerkelsesverdig er sesongene 15-16 og 18-19. Året Leicester vant tittelen, var kvaliteten på ligaen dårlig. På samme måte vrir Citys og Liverpools glitrende tittelløp fra 18-19 skjev gjennomsnittet til det høyeste punktet i våre data.
  2. Ved første visning indikerer gjennomsnittet at det ikke var stor forskjell mellom disse sesongene når det gjelder ligastyrke. Kanskje standardavvik forteller oss hva gjennomsnittet ikke kan. SD fremhever hvor flyktige poengene som ble innhentet. Jeg lar dette være åpent for tolkning, men i mitt sinn bør en lav SD sannsynligvis korrelere med en mer konkurransedyktig liga. Vær oppmerksom på at en liga kan være dårlig og konkurransedyktig (15-16 kommer til å tenke på).
  3. Teamet på 10. plass brukes som en surrogat til medianen her. En median i statistikk er mer robust når det gjelder ekstreme verdier sammenlignet med gjennomsnittet. City's Centurions skjev gjennomsnittet betydelig

Manchester Citys sesongoppkjøring er som følger:

Dato Motstand Konkurranse
Lør 8. mai Chelsea (H) PL
Fre 14. mai Newcastle (A) PL
Tir 18. mai Brighton (A) PL
Søndag 23. mai Everton (H) PL
Lør 29. mai Chelsea (N) CL

Chelsea har følgende:

Dato Motstand Konkurranse
Lør 8. mai Manchester City (A) PL
Onsdag 12. mai Arsenal (H) PL
Lørdag 15. mai Leicester (N) FA -cup
Tir 18. mai Leicester (H) PL
Søndag 23. mai Aston Villa (A) PL
Lør 29. mai Manchester City (N) CL

Manchester City må vinne minst en av sine fire kommende kamper (eller se Manchester United slippe 3 poeng i de fire kommende kampene) for å vinne PL -tittelen.

Den eneste kampen i midten av uken som City har er borte i Brighton.

en uke mellom kampene for første gang siden slutten av desember (unntatt internasjonale pauser), da Everton -bortekampen ble utsatt på grunn av et Covid -utbrudd.

Chelsea har ikke noen mellomveker før uken før CL -finalen.

Chelsea har en kamp igjen å spille (FA -cupfinalen) og trenger fortsatt å hente topp 4 som forsikring hvis de ikke vinner CL -finalen.

Chelsea er for tiden 4., 2 poeng bak Leicester med lik GD, og ​​3 poeng foran West Ham med +11 GD -fordel.

Alle de resterende kampene i Chelsea er mot lag i den øverste halvdelen av tabellen.

Chelseas back-to-back-kamper mot Leicester kan potensielt definere deres hjemmekampanje, og kan resultere i minimal lagrotasjon halvannen uke før CL-finalen.

Begge lag har mindre enn en uke mellom den siste PL -kampen og CL -finalen, som er omtrent en uke eller to færre enn vanlig.

Her er en oversikt over salget ved hjelp av amerikanske butikkpriser.

Spillnavn Plu $ $ ale Av Kritisk Plat
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. fortsett å lese på reddit ➡

https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/writers/rees-j/1997/xx/newlabour.htm (bedre formatering)

& gt Arbeiderpartiets raske valgseier 1. mai 1997 har allerede gjort rekordbøkene: Arbeidspartiets største Commons -flertall noensinne, Tories laveste stemme siden 1832, de fleste kabinettministrene uten sete i et valg, flest kvinnelige parlamentsmedlemmer noensinne valgt, og så videre . Seieren hadde en enda større innvirkning enn de nakne tallene avslører fordi den på mange måter var så uventet. Sjef blant dem som ikke kunne finne det i seg selv å tro at de konsekvente rapportene fra meningsmålingene før valget var Tony Blair selv. Hans nå beryktede bemerkning bare dager før avstemningen om at 'dette er ikke et skredland' ble matchet selve seiersnatten da han nektet å tro på spådommene i exit -meningsmålingene før lenge etter at de første resultatene ble offentliggjort.

& gtMen Labour -lederen var ikke alene om å tvile på at partiet hans ville vinne godt, eller faktisk at det ville vinne i det hele tatt. Mange Labour -velgere og -aktivister, og mange til venstre for Labour, ble arret av opplevelsen av valget i 1992 da seieren så ut til å gli i siste øyeblikk, til forvirring av meningsmålingene. De nektet å erkjenne de viktige forskjellene mellom de to påfølgende valgene, ikke minst det faktum at Labour begynte kampanjen i 1992 rundt 5 prosent frem i meningsmålingene fremfor 20 prosent ledelse de hadde oppnådd i flere måneder før valget i 1997 ble kunngjort. For noen ble tvilen dypere ettersom politikken og ledelsen i Arbeiderpartiet ble mer høyreekstremt under Blair. Sikkert, argumentet løp, Blair er så lik Tories at folk vil bli demoraliserte og nekte å stemme på ham. Spøkelsen i dette argumentet har overlevd den avgjørende motbevisningen av valgresultatet. Noen, Labours ledere blant dem, hevder nå at Blair vant fordi han var så høyreekstrem. Til venstre fører dette argumentet til den pessimistiske konklusjonen om at det sosialistiske prosjektet er like vanskelig å realisere under Blair som under Tories. "Folk er bare høyreorienterte," sies det, og det faktum at de bare ville stemme Labour når partiet ble ledet av sin mest høyreekstreme leder i etterkrigstiden, beviser poenget.

& gt Årsakene til Labours valgseier er derfor en viktig del av argumentet om konsekvensene. Hvis Labour -lederne og deres pessimistiske fettere til venstre har rett i at Labour -avstemningen bare var mulig på grunn av den delen

Din 18-minutters lørdag-mandag-rapport i 4451 ord.

## Armenia og SNG -republikkene markerte seiersdagen for andre verdenskrig

Putin gratulerte Pashinyan og det armenske folket med 76 -årsjubileet for seiersdagen. Vi husker prestasjonene til våre fedre og bestefedre med en spesiell følelse av stolthet og takknemlighet.

Pashinyan gratulerte Putin og russere. Den store arven etter seier er en viktig verdi, en moralsk veiledning for fremtidige generasjoner for å bygge en rettferdig og trygg verden. & quot

Den årlige marsjen & quotImmortal Regiment & quot, der folk tar bilder av familiemedlemmene fra andre verdenskrig, arrangeres online i år. Deltakerne delte bildene på sosiale medier under hashtags #ԱնմահԳունդ 2021 #Бессмертныйполк2021

Armenske og russiske tropper organiserte et arrangement i Gyumri militærbase.

https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1051721.html https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1051778.html https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1051722.html https: // armenpress .am/arm/news/1051796.html

## offentlige tjenestemenn hyllet og delte meldinger

[I dag er også Shushis frigjøringsdag under den første Artsakh -krigen]

Stortingets pres. Mirzoyan: Til tross for at Shushi er under aserbajdsjansk kontroll, bør det være et av de viktigste symbolene på den armenske vekkelsen. Armenia må fortsette forhandlingene under OSSE Minsk-gruppen for å oppnå Artsakhs rett til selvbestemmelse og gjenoppretting av territoriell integritet. //

Pashinyan besøkte Yerablur panteon før han ble med andre på et offentlig arrangement i Hakhtanak Park. De møtte en gruppe veteraner fra andre verdenskrig.

Pashinyans melding: Gratulerer med 76 -årsjubileet for seieren i den store patriotiske krigen. Dette er en flott ferie som vi med rette er stolte av. Bidraget fra det armenske folket var stort. 500 000 armeniere fra Sovjetunionen deltok i krigen og 300 000 døde for seier. 107 av dem mottok titler av Hero.

Mange av dem ville fortsette å bli offiserer i den sovjetiske hæren og nå nye høyder. De var ryggraden til de fremtidige uavhengige armenske og Artsakh -hærene. Det var dem som sluttet seg til de frivillige og frigjorde Shushi med moderne hayduks ånd.

Dessverre er ikke Shushi med oss ​​i dag. Vi sørger over fangenskapet, men innser at vi, uansett skjebne og nåværende realiteter, må feire dagen for frigjøringen. Det er en av de strålende sidene i vår moderne historie, den har vært av stor betydning for vårt folk.

Vi må holde minnet om de som døde i krigen i live, og vi må c

Få mennesker forventet at klubbens utviklingssjef skulle få jobben, men han har spilt en nøkkelrolle for å forbedre klubbens akademi siden 2013

Et enkelt Google -søk etter 'Manchester United' og 'Director of Football' vil gi en lang liste med kjente navn.

Edwin van der Sar, Ralf Rangnick, Rio Ferdinand, Patrice Evra-antallet rykter som har ryktet har vokst og vokst med årene, ettersom spillere snudde argumenterte for at klubben desperat trengte å gi noen med bakgrunn i spillet en nøkkel rolle i overføringsforhandlinger.

Rollen ble sannsynligvis alltid fylt etter hvert, men det vil ikke ha vært mange interesserte observatører som forventet at Uniteds leder for fotballutvikling John Murtough skulle få jobben.

Faktisk, etter at det ble kunngjort onsdag at Murtough hadde blitt utnevnt til klubbens første fotballdirektør noensinne, lurte mange utenforstående rett og slett på hvem han var - enn si hvorfor han hadde blitt valgt til å fylle en så viktig stilling.

Imidlertid har Murtough lenge blitt ansett som en nøkkelfigur på Old Trafford.

Han ble brakt til United av David Moyes i 2013, etter å ha jobbet for Premier League tidligere. Regelmessig beskrevet som en 'fixer', ble Murtough tiltalt for å forbedre akademiet.

He excelled in that regard, playing a pivotal role in a change of policy which saw United adopt a more expansive, global approach to player recruitment, resulting in the arrival of the likes of Hannibal Mejbri and Alvaro Fernandez.

Murtough, who will report into Ed Woodward, was also integral to the establishment of the Women’s team in 2018.

Consequently, while United evaluated a number of external candidates, they regarded Murtough as the best option for the 'Football Director' role because of his already extensive knowledge of the club and his numerous success stories over the past eight years and he was considered to be a better option than the external candidates who were deemed inappropriate as they were only interested in recruitment.

Of course, his work is now going to come under more scrutiny than ever before.

One of the principal external criticisms of United's management structure has long been that the signing of players is overseen by people "not from the football world", as Evra

The success currently being enjoyed by Joel Glazer is in no way down to him

For fans of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, things are looking up. After near two decades of muddling mediocrity, their team has reached the Superbowl for the first time since 2002. Not only that, they will be playing against the Kansas City Chiefs next month in their own home, albeit that the pandemic has restricted the crowd in the Raymond James Stadium to 22,000.

What’s more they have within their ranks the greatest Superbowl winner in history, the recently signed 43 year old quarterback Tom Brady, who will be throwing for his seventh Superbowl winner's ring. In Florida, the stars seem to be aligning.

No wonder Joel Glazer, scion of the family that owns the franchise, was cooing with delight when interviewed after his team’s play-off victory last weekend.

“We’re so happy,” he said. “Tampa we’re coming home.”

At the same time, across the Atlantic, the Glazers’ other sporting entity also appears to be awakening after a lengthy slumber. Manchester United are back in a title race, the place that their fans believe is the minimal requirement for an operation of their prestige.

This joint upward trajectory has made some observers wonder whether we have got the Glazers wrong. Far from the leeches of wider conception, are the family in fact model owners, careful stewards determined to bring playing success to their clubs? Maybe we should give them some credit.

To which the only answer is: yeah, right, just like Newcastle fans should all bow down in gratitude to Mike Ashley.

Malcolm Glazer bought the Buccs in 1996. No expert in sports management, and not even that much of a gridiron fan, he largely left the day-to-day running of the business alone, his main concern drawing down the dividends. In 2002 the family hired John Gruden as coach and he won the Superbowl in his first year in charge. It was a high point that could not be maintained.

The Glazers had no clever system, no revolutionary management technique, no moneyball equivalent to keep the franchise potent. Their one piece of methodology was to change coaches as often as Chelsea. 12 they have hired in the 25 years they have owned the Buccs, none coming close to matching Gruden until Bruce Arians arrived in 2019 and broug


The Case for Manchester United

I am the proud owner of a nephew who is 15 years old, 6 feet 2, and 85 pounds after a week in a typhoon. I&rsquove seen veggie burgers with more meat on them. Great kid, too, and a huge Manchester United fan &ndash he recently did some school exam after one hour&rsquos sleep, having trekked with his dad the night before to Barcelona and back to watch United in a European game. (Don&rsquot tell his teacher). But despite the fact I like him a lot, and share his obsession with all things Man U, being just 15 he&rsquos badly in need of a history lesson, so Sam Dempsey of Tamworth, England? Take the iPod buds out of your huge ears, and listen up.

Lesson number one: United weren&rsquot always this good.

In a couple of weeks, amidst the swirling fogs of the Grand Sports Arena of the Luzhniki Olympic Complex in Moscow, the Champions League final will be played, and one team will be crowned best side in Europe. The Champions League (not to be confused with the European Championship, a tournament for national teams which begins in June 2008) is the premier competition for European club teams. What began with 32 teams in groups is now whittled down to a couple in a single, winner-takes-all game, and this year is the first time in the competition&rsquos history that the final features two British clubs: Chelsea (or Chelski as they&rsquore nicknamed given their Russian owner, the richer-than-God Roman Abramovich), and Manchester United. And if you started watching soccer fervently around the year 2001, as Sam Dempsey did, then it&rsquos a surprise to you that United don&rsquot make the final every year. In fact, the last time they made it was 1999 &ndash Sam was 6 years old — before that, 1968, when his dad was 4. And before that, never, and that&rsquos because of 1958.

Lesson number two: When Liverpool boss Bill Shankly famously said &lsquoSome people think football is a matter of life and death. I assure you, it’s much more serious than that,&rsquo it just proved what a twat he was.

Soccer fans around the world know that on February 6, 1958, an airplane carrying the Manchester United team back from a European game in Belgrade stopped to refuel in a snow-blasted Munich. In attempting to take off (for a third time), the plane crashed through a fence at the edge of the airport, into both a house and a hut used to store fuel, where it finally, and devastatingly, burst into flames. At the time, the team on board was nicknamed the Busby Babes, a combination of the name of the manager, Matt Busby, and the average age of the players, which wasn&rsquot much more than Sam Dempsey&rsquos age now. Ask a Man United fan to name the players who died, and many will forlornly say, &lsquoBent, Byrne, Colman, Edwards [pause], Jones, Pegg, Taylor, Whelan.&rsquo We pause not just for the rhythm of it, but for the fact that Duncan Edwards has, since his death, become a talisman of the shock the soccer world felt. He was 16 years old when he first played for United, 18 when for England, and by all accounts he was a phenomenon: hard-tackling, swift of mind, with a shot like a Howitzer. He was probably going to be the greatest player of his generation. But on that snowy night in Germany, it all came to an end: his legs were shattered, and his kidneys beyond repair. Amazingly, he lived long enough to reportedly ask a United official, &ldquoWhat time is kick off against Wolves? I mustn&rsquot miss that match.&rdquo Just over two weeks after the crash, he was gone, along with three backroom staff members, six journalists, and four other passengers.

The heart of a soccer club, ripped out and thrown in the slush of a German airport. What to make of such an event? For weeks, England held its breath, hardly able to think about soccer, about sports, about much of anything. It&rsquos a homogenous place still, small with poor weather, and national tragedies are just that: national. Matt Busby, the manager, had been very badly injured himself (he got the Catholic sacrament of last rites twice) there are chilling black-and-white movies of his disembodied voice coming over the loudspeakers at Man United&rsquos ground, Old Trafford, messages he read to a packed stadium as he lay near death in a Munich hospital. Though the great Turin team of 1949 had similarly perished in a terrible air crash, this accident still seems to stand alone in sporting history. Maybe it was the ages of the players maybe it was Duncan Edwards maybe it was what Busby&rsquos battle to live maybe it was because of what came next: Busby&rsquos return to full health, and the most glittering prize of all.

Lesson number three: When Man United wins, conception can follow.

By 1960s, Manchester United were back playing regularly in Europe, and on a warm May night in 1968 they beat a great Benfica team &ndash a team that featured Eusebio, at the time the best player in the world &ndash to become the first English team to win the European Cup (the forerunner to today&rsquos Champions League). Finally, United had reached their full potential, a footballing potential so cruelly taken from them ten years earlier. Bobby Charlton, a Busby Babe who survived the Munich crash, opened the scoring in 1968, glancing a header past Henrique in the Benfica net when the game went into extra time at 1-1, the great George Best rounded the keeper to put United ahead, and a minute later Brian Kidd echoed his own name by heading in on his 19th birthday.

Appropriately, Charlton finished the scoring on 99 minutes with a fabulous chip over the keeper from a crap angle, and Manchester United were, in the words of the Pathe News announcer, &ldquosupreme soccer champions of Europe.&rdquo

Six months later, I was born. I like to think that&rsquos down to a team called Gornik Zabrze. In late February, almost exactly nine months before my first appearance for Muling and Puking FC, United had won at Old Trafford in their European Cup-winning year against the Polish champions. Brian Kidd scored that night, too, and talking of scoring, I&rsquom sure my dad&rsquos good mood. . . . By my personal second trimester we&rsquod beaten Eusebio&rsquos Benfica, but I was to grow up like Sam Dempsey, only dimly aware of United&rsquos tragic/triumphant history. The first year I really followed them fervently was 1975. By then, Manchester United was something else entirely.

Lesson number four: Some victories should not be celebrated.

After 1968 the club went into a decline, and in late 1974 a player named Denis Law, a United legend who had only missed the 1968 European Cup final through injury, ended his playing career at United&rsquos arch rivals, Manchester City.

In an end-of-season local derby, Law found himself with his back to our goal, and in perfect Law fashion (he was one of the smartest center forwards ever to play the game), he backheeled the ball into United&rsquos net, thereby relegating them to what was then Division Two. Law was devastated, not realizing then that even a draw would have sent us down. No matter — he bowed his head in shame and walked away, leaving the field almost immediately (he was substituted), and retiring a few weeks later. My earliest memories of United as a central part of my life were therefore of the team playing teams like Oxford United and Leyton Orient. Throughout the rest of the seventies and eighties &ndash or my childhood, as it&rsquos known — United continued to flatter, but weren&rsquot even deceptively bad. It was only with the ascent of Alex Ferguson to position as United manager that United started to dominate as they have done recently. We’ve won the Premiership ten times since 1992, including this year. It&rsquos still a shock to some of us. We remember 1975.

Lesson number five: Uncles always tell stories humor them.

I was watching a United game with my girlfriend the other night when she suddenly blurted out, &ldquoSo has Man United ever been relegated?&rdquo Once I&rsquod stopped headbutting her, I said, &ldquoHoney, let&rsquos go back to 1958, shall we?&rdquo She was asleep by the time I got to Brian Kidd&rsquos goal in the Benfica match, but I woke her to fill her in on the forthcoming Champions League final. As I did so, I realized there&rsquos a thread running all the way back to 1958. It&rsquos not just the coincidence of dates (&rsquo58, &rsquo68, &rsquo08), nor the fact that the remaining survivors of Munich have been invited to join the current United team in Moscow in a couple of weeks. No, it&rsquos the thread of family that makes United fans (makes most sports fans, in fact).

In my case, my uncle Mike was a journalist in Manchester in 1958, and a colleague of his died in the crash. He went on to be pals with fellow-Catholic Busby he wrote in the United programme every week you knew you could prompt him to talk about the Busby Babes, but you didn&rsquot dare. His younger brother, my dad, lived for United too, and died in 1990, before the team became good again. My kids were born the year United won the Champions League now, they&rsquore almost old enough to care, too, but only if a horse and a poodle somehow get in United&rsquos starting 11.

Lesson number six: Unlike Christiano Ronaldo, this, too, shall pass.

But this final is not for my kids they&rsquore too young. This one&rsquos for Sam Dempsey. He&rsquos been to every United game this season, home and away, accompanying his dad, my elder brother, all over England. After about 65 minutes of every game they both lustily join in the chant in which &ldquoSerbia&rdquo somehow rhymes with &ldquomurderer,&rdquo an appallingly witty reference to our tough central defender, Nmanja Vidic they call me with full reports of how we played. Sam thinks United have always been this good &ndash that Ronaldo and Rooney and Rio are business as usual &ndash that we&rsquoll always finish in the top two, and will be disappointed if we don&rsquot make the Champions League final. Well, hate to tell you son, but when I was your age . . . but no.

So what that my youth came and went with United winning nothing of note? Let&rsquos leave Denis Law and the Second Division and Leyton Orient behind. Now, in my fortieth year, United fans are packing their bags with the ghosts of the fifties and sixties and seventies and eighties, and they&rsquore flying over Munich on their way to Moscow. How could anyone root for any team but United, given what came before? It&rsquos a question I often ask myself. No one&rsquos answered yet, and for me, no one ever will.

Lesson number seven: Keep out of bars.

I was in a bar recently sitting next to a guy who follows Chelsea, the team United must beat to once again become supreme soccer champions of Europe. He was bemoaning what they&rsquove become a once-fashionable West London club, in deep blue shirts, passing and dribbling, once in a while being successful but not really. All that has gone. Now, they have devolved into a team of superstars paid for by Abramovich, but who seem to publicly hate each other. Recently, stars Didier Drogba and Michael Ballack argued during a game against United about who was to take a free kick and in their recent game against Newcastle, John Terry, their captain and presumed role model, ripped fellow defender Ricardo Carvahlo a new one when he left the field having fallen on his old one.

Then there&rsquos some of their fans. The Chelsea Headhunters are a notorious group who dole out vicious beatings on other team&rsquos supporters, then leave a snazzy calling card on their prone bodies. These same geniuses have also issued death threats against both Anders Frisk (a Swedish referee, though honestly, some of his decisions . . .) and two Reading players. Recently, a member of the groundskeeping crew at Chelsea&rsquos stadium reportedly called a black United player, Patrice Evra, &ldquoa fucking immigrant,&rdquo and a full-scale brawl ensued.

So Chelsea are not hard to loathe, though I guess if I&rsquod been born in West London I might well have supported them.

Lesson number eight: Just because you never met your granddad doesn&rsquot mean you don&rsquot look like him.

We support our teams because we like the color of their shirts, or because it&rsquos our hometown team, or because something tragic happened before we were born, or because our dads did. Sam, your dad had no choice, just like his dad before him, a man who grew up four miles from Old Trafford. Your son, should you be so blessed by same, may well be conceived after a difficult away game in Italy, United 1-0 down after the first leg, and a young center forward, name TK, just like you banging in the winner at the very end. Luckily, you don&rsquot have a brother, so your kids won&rsquot be bored by uncle stories of Ronaldo&rsquos solo goals, and Nani&rsquos headbutts, and Scholes&rsquo and Giggs&rsquo demeanor as current untouchable United legends. Count your blessings, then, and in the words of the most famous United chant of all, some time soon let&rsquos take a &ldquowalk along the Warwick Road, to see Matt Busby&rsquos aces.&rdquo


Manchester: Another senseless horror

It was Monday, May 21. We had just finished production of last week’s newspaper. Suddenly, my phone started to “blow up” with alerts from news agency after news agency. One after the other after the other, it was something like “Explosion at arena in Manchester, England.”

At first, I presumed it was some sort of football (soccer) match . Soon, we learned it was an Ariana Grande concert. The capacity at the arena — 21,000. In attendance at the concert, 20,000. Most of the attendees? Young.

It finally happened. A major terror attack at a major arena/stadium.

We will not use the name of the murderous terrorist whose reported suicide bomb of nails, nuts, & bolts killed 22 innocent Britons, the youngest of whom was 8. Eight.

We do pause to remember the victims: John Atkinson , of Manchest er Courtney Boyle, of Gateshead Kelly Brewster, of Sheffield Georgina Callander, of Manchester Olivia Campbell, of Manchester Liam Curry and Chloe Rutherford, a young couple who reports say “loved to travel together” Wendy Fawell, of West Yorkshire Martyn Hett, of Manchester Alison Howe (unknown hometown) Nell Jones, of Cheshire Michelle Kiss, of Lancashire Marcin and Angelika Klis, both Poli sh nationals living in England.

Also, Sorrell Leczkowski, one of the younger victims at 14 Lisa Lees, the parent of a concert-goer who was waiting in the arena’s outside concourse for her daughter when the bomb exploded Eilidh MacLeod, of Scotland, also just 14 Elaine McIver, a 43-year-old off-duty Cheshire police officer Saffie Rose Roussos, 8, of Lancashire Philip Tron, 32, the step-father of victim Courtney Boyle and finally, Jane Tweddle, of Blackpool.

Of the youngest victim, teacher Chris Upton told The Sun of London:

“News of Saffie’s death in this appalling attack has come as a tremendous shock to all of us and I would like to send our deepest condolences to all of her family and friends. The thought that anyone could go out to a concert and not come home is heartbreaking. Saffie was simply a beautiful little girl in every aspect of the word.

“She was loved by everyone and her warmth and kindness will be remembered fondly. Saffie was quiet and unassuming with a creative flair. Our focus is now on helping pupils and staff cope with this shocking news and we have called in specialist support from Lancashire County Council to help us do that. We are a tight-knit school and wider community and will give each other the support that we need at this difficult time.”

Beyond all that happened in Manchester just a tad more than a week ago, I can’t help but wonder — how has something like this not happened in the United States?

We live near so many targets just like the Manchester Arena. It’s a minor miracle, almost, that another madman hasn’t targeted Red Bull Arena, the Prudential Center, Barclay’s Center, Madison Square Garden, Metlife Stadium, Citi Field or Yankee Stadium.

In a sense, it’s pretty remarkable that of the 20,000 people gathered at the concert last week, only 22 people lost their lives. Still, it’s a bit disconcerting just how easy it was for a deranged, determined man to waltz right into an arena’s lobby and to do the kind of damage he did.

I don’t write all of this to create panic. It’s q uite the opposite, in fact. So many of us lived through the terror attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 — and too often, people forget what happened that day. It’s not until there’s another incident that we truly wake up to be reminded just how volatile our world is.

So a week-and-a-half after the events of Manchester, let us all take a moment to remember those who died. And let us remember how lucky we’ve been not to have been targeted in nearly 16 years.

But all the s ame, as much as we forget about history, let this Manchester attack also serve as a reminder that when we do forget the past, we’re doomed to repeat it.

May that never happen to anyone.

• As touching as it was that Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth II went to a Manchester hospital to visit some of the surviving victims of the attack, I can’t help but wonder if perhaps it would have been better that she’d just remained at Buckingham Palace.

While visiting with two teenage girls with leg injuries, the first question the queen asked the two girls?

“ You had enjoyed the concert, didn’t you,” the queen asked.

• Happy birthday to two very special human beings — Stevie Nash (May 29) and Nicole McGuire Neubig (May 25).


Manchester Observer - History

History of Manchester Township, Dearborn County, Indiana
From: History of Dearborn County, Indiana
Her People, Industries and Institutions
Archibald Shaw, Editor
Published By: B. F. Bowen & Co., Inc.
Indianapolis, Indiana 1915

Manchester originally included considerable of Jackson township, a small portion of Kelso and the greater part of York. In 1831 twelve sections were taken off and added to Kelso township and in 1841 York township was created, and it again lost territory and with the creation of Jackson, in 1832, another loss of territory was made but with all its losses Manchester is the largest township in the county, and it is claimed that it has more square miles than any township in the state. Since York township was organized there has been but little change in its boundaries. In 1896 a small strip was taken off and added to York, which is the only change that the township has undergone since the townships were all created.

Like Sparta township, there was little done in the way of settling the territory until after the War of 1812-15, and all danger from the Indian tribes had disappeared forever. The earliest lands entered from the government were made in the parts nearest to the river and the creeks. In township 5, range 2 west, a portion of section 1 was entered in 1809, by David Blane, and in 1813 another portion of the same section by Amor Bruce. Another part of the same section was entered in 1812 by Elijah Pitts, and another portion of the same section to Ichabod Palmerton in 1814. A portion of section 2, o the same township, was entered by James Vaughn in 1813, and part of the same section by John Ferris in 1814. Henry Dils entered a part of section 12, in the same township, in 1817, and Hugh McMullen a part of section 8, in 1818.

In township 6, range 2, Abner Tibbetts entered a part of section 33 in 1814, and in 1818 parts of section 32, of the same township. were entered bye Joseph Sylvester and Elijah Rich, and in 1829 by Samuel McMullen. In 1818 portions' of section 31 were entered by David Roberts, Sr. William Barton and Thomas Alleyway. Parts of section 36 were sold to Riley Elliott, James Vaughn and Samuel Wright.

In township 7, range 3 west, John R. Rounds bought a portion of section 35 in 1819, and Joshua Given a part of the same section in 1825.

The history of Manchester township dates back to the year 1815, when Mark McCracken and his brother Robert, with their mother, located on the present site of the village of Manchester. In 1852 Robert McCracken stated over his own signature that he, in 1815, cut the road seven miles, drove the first wagon that ever was on the ridge, and put up the first cabin that ever was in that neighborhood. It is supposed that he cut the road from Cambridge, which was at that time the nearest station where there was a settlement. He also stated that his nearest neighbor was at that time some four or five miles away and that they were all living this side or nearer the river than where he was located. Two years later, in 1817, he sold out to Rev. Daniel Plummer, but his brother, Mark McCracken, retained his portion until his death, and erected the large country mansion owned for so many years by William H. Baker.

During the year 1815 David, George and Joseph Johnston, from Frederick county, Virginia, located on north Hogan, in the township. They had left Virginia in 181o, settling first in Butler county, Ohio, and in 1812 removing to Vincennes, then they came to Louisville, Kentucky, and in 1814 to where Aurora was later built, and a year later to Manchester township.

Lawrence Lozier, the progenitor of the Lozier family, settled in the township the same year, and a year later David and Abner Tibbetts, Simon Alexander and Benjamin Anderson came into the township.

It is said that about this time there was a large emigration from the state of Maine, the citizens of that state having what they called the "Ohio fever." In the fall of 1817 fifteen families, all from the same neighborhood in the state of Governor Kent, seventy eight in all, left Cumberland county, Maine. It excited much curiosity and was spoken of by the papers of the time as "the land fleet." Their route was through the cities of Portland, Albany and New York, thence to the headwaters of the Alleghany at Olean, New York, thence by boats and rafts to Pittsburgh, and on down the Ohio to Lawrenceburg. Most of this hand of emigrants settled on what was for years called Greenbrier ridge, now known as the neat little village of Manchester. They camped down close together until they had their bearings and then proceeded to secure land for themselves.

Robert McCracken, in referring to the coming of Daniel Plummer, said: "In the section where Plummer located there were no less than five families living on one hundred and ninety nine or more acres that was cleared, and on the land I sold Plummer only five acres were cleared. Some twenty families were living within a mile of Mr. Plummer after the Maine colony settled there."

STORIES OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.

In 1876 George W. Lane nad an article in the Aurora Independent which spoke of the township of Manchester as follows: "Soon after the War of 1812 one of the most important settlements for numbers and charactet was made in Manchester township. They suffered many hardships and, indeed, many privations, but they stood their ground like Christian martyrs and many lived to see tall oaks utilized for other purposes and removed to make room for houses, barns and meadows, and in less than a decade the ridge was under a high state of cultivation for miles, and in the fall rows of teams would be seen on the mad hauling off the surplus of their farms and cooper shops. The latter work was carried on for a number of years, as Manchester was studded over with heavy timber, the tallest and largest trees this side of California, and to work up these great oaks into pork barrels required the labor of Mr. Jaquith and all of his boys, and these boys were as good, jovial fellows as were ever turned loose in any big woods.

"The writer remembers well the first time he ever saw Manchester. He rode out on a horse behind Henry, or as he was better known as "Hank," Jaquith, to attend a party that was on the tapis for that night, and if the party was too large for the house they adjourned to the threshing floor in the great barn it did not in any wise mar the pleasure of the occasion.

"Joseph Baker was one of the early settlers of Manchester township, a man of fine appearance and easy address. He was the father of William H. Baker and Kirtley Baker, of Aurora, the grandfather of Kirtley Baker, of Lawrenceburg. There was also William Bennett, A. True, M. Darling and A. Oldham, near Tanners creek. Mr. Oldham was a good, honest man and as true a Christian as ever lived this side the gates of Paradise.

"John Palmer resided on the state road. He was elected a probate judge for the county, and for a number of years was a justice of the peace. He was honest and wanted to do right. Judge Palmer was a large farmer and a merchant. Charles W. Wright was the pioneer merchant of Wrights Corners and for many years did a good business. He was a sensible and industrious man. Daniel Plummer was a man worthy of remembrance and entitled to a more extended notice than the writer can indulge in. No friend of other days is called to mind with more pleasing associations. He was not only a goad man but he wanted all others to be good. His example corresponded with his precept. His daily walk was a rebuke to the evil disposed, and his kind words well calculated to encourage them to seek the paths of rectitude. Mr. Plummer took no pains to secure public favor with a view to obtaining office, though well qualified and worthy. His moral and religious training led him into channels of a higher and more useful character, yet the people, without solicitation on his part, elected him to the state Senate in 1834, which office he honored instead of the office honoring him. He discharged the duties of the position honestly, faithfully and acceptably to the people.

"Mark McCracken was a prominent man in his day, and enjoyed the confidence of his fellow citizens. They always knew just where to find him. He was a man of nerve and unyielding when he made up his mind. He seemed to have an intuitive sense of the right, and his scorn of wrong was so positive that like the balance of a watch it regulated all his actions. As an officer of the county he was economy personified. He could say 'no' to pretended or unjust claims against the county with a vim that might be learned to great advantage at the present day. His motto was that he had a right to be liberal or even extravagant with his own, but never with the people's money.

"Daniel Roberts was one of those men whose character furnishes a light to memory's path, that could not be overlooked while casting about Manchester for worthy pioneers deserving special notice. It is said 'that from the overflow of the heart the mouth speaketh.' If this is true then Mr. Roberts must have had a heart as big as a lion, for it has been flowing with love to his neighbors and generous sentiments to his associates for over four score years, and yet the fountain is not exhausted and even his voice is set to the key of kindness that, like the echo from a mountain cove, rings on the ear long after he ceases to speak. Had he received a thorough education in early life with his other gifts, it would have made him more prominent and highly useful in a much larger sphere. Rev. Daniel Roberts was the father of Judge Omer F. Roberts.

"Oliver Heustis was one who would have been recognized as a man of intelligende in any society. He was a constant reader and it may be said was a student all his life. He was well posted on all political questions and familiar with history. He was a good talker and very much enjoyed pleasant and intelligent conversation, indeed, it might be said that it was his forte, for Mr. Heustis was not a gifted public speaker, but when he did take part on important occasions, what he did say was sensible and to the point. Mr. Heustis was twice elected to the Legislature, in 1832 and in 1844, and as a member was regarded as a practical man with principle that was unyielding.

EARLY TEMPERANCE ADVOCATE.

"James P. Milliken was an intellectual light that could not be hid in a forest home, but was called forth to take elevated positions of trust and honor, that his light might shine forth for the good of others. Mr: Milliken was a man of fair attainments, dignified appearance and unsullied reputation. A wish to do just right was the prominent point in his character this led him to disregard the popular breeze of the day and induced him to prefer political martyrdom to the abandonment of his honest convictions. Mr. Milliken was in the full sense of the word a temperance man by precept and example, and would that others should be the same. He also had decided opinions on the subject of human slavery, and would not yield them for the sake of friends or party. As a citizen he was industrious and enterprising, and enjoyed the confidence of all who knew him. Mr. Milliken was four times elected to the state Legislature twice to the House of Representatives, 1841 and 1842 and twice to the Senate, serving six years, 1846 to 1852.

"Luther Plummer was an unassuming man of sterling worth and strict integrity, looking to the welfare of his family and attentive to his own interests. He put on no foolish style or attempts to appear in characters other than his own, but like ornaments made of pure gold that need no varnish or gilding, so with a true hearted man, who is the same at home as abroad, today and tomorrow who acts well his part without pomp or dazzling parade. To say that Mr. Plummer was an honest man would be no compliment, for like the description we once heard of a certain person 'that he deserved no credit of being a gentleman, he was one naturally,' so with Mr. Plummer, he deserves no credit for being an honest man, he was one naturally.

"Of the early settlers the Congers should not be forgotten. David Conger was a man of influence in his day. He was the father of Edward A. Conger, who was elected sheriff of the county when quite a young man. Edward bade fair to make a man of considerable prominence had his life been spared. Lewis B. Conger was well known in the county. He was elected, in 1841, assessor of real estate for the entire county under the new law. Samuel W. Conger still resides in Upper Manchester, respected as he deserves to be by all his neighbors.

"A history of the township would be imperfect without a reference to Ben Tibbetts who, when the writer first knew him, was one of the most active thorough going, dashing business man in the county. He could haul more hay and load a boat quicker, go to New Orleans and back again sooner than anyone else. His very presence, with his usual fire and life, like a galvanic battery that emits electricity at the slightest touch, gave activity and new life to all around him. At heart Ben Tibbetts was an honest man, of generous impulses, and while he may have wronged himself, he never intentionally wronged a neighbor.

"Alfred J. Cotton found a home in Dearborn county when quite a young man. There were few better and many worse men than Judge Cotton. His moral worth and religious devotion commended him to the respect of all good citizens but his name and history are recorded in a more reliable shape than we can place them in 'Cotton's Keepsake.' Yet we will add that he served as associate judge for a number of years and probate judge for four years.

"We must not leave Manchester without calling attention to Mrs. Mary Piles, better known as 'Aunt Polly.' She came to the county during the War of 1812, and was married to Mr. Piles in 1813, at Georgetown, in Miller township, and now (1876) at over eighty years is as sprightly and active as a girl of sixteen and can walk five miles without any difficulty. Her memory being good she can narrate stories of pioneer life that are full of interest.

"The Tibbettses came from Maine. The Heustis family came from the state of New York in 1819. William Dils came from West Virginia in 1816. Joseph Baker came from New York in 1817. The Congers came from New Jersey in 1817. The McMullens came from Pennsylvania in 1817. Hugh McMullen was a native of Ireland. They built the first cabin and were the first settlers on what is called Pleasant View.

"The Givans came from Maryland, and settled in the township in 1825. Joshua, the father of Judge Givan, of Lawrenceburg, was a native of Maryland, and on coming to this county interested himself in educational matters, and the first school house erected in the neighborhood in which he settled was built on his land and mainly through his influence. His house was one of the preaching places before the erection of the Baptist church building. His object and aim in life was to benefit his fellow men, to do good in the community in which he lived, honest in all his dealings, charitable in his giving and religious in his everyday life. He died in a ripe old age, honored and respected by all who knew him.

"Judge Cotton came from the state of Maine and settled in the township in 1818. He erected a cabin and all was one vast, unbroken wilderness around him, save here and there a little cabin and a small opening, the labors of the newcomers of the previous year. These were scattered about on what was then called Greenbrier ridge, so called by hunters on account of the prevalence of a brier by that color that abounded in the forests. He says: `My cabin was far removed from any other habitation, solitary and alone at first. I had bushed out a wagon track, as we call it, and had also blazed a footpath, a nearer cut to the settlement. My mind reverts with indescribable emotion to that period of my life. Many is the time and oft, that I have entered this dismal and solitary path, when for a good part of the way it was so dark that I could not see my hand to save me was compelled to feel out the path with my feet, with my heart in my mouth, my hair well nigh erect, and my blood nearly curdled, for the prowling wolves were about my path and had often raised their hideous yells in my very door yard.'

"Rev. Daniel Roberts emigrated from the state of Maine. In 1817 he determined to seek a home in the West, Indiana being his objective point. Using an ox team as his mode of conveyance he started on this long and tedious journey. On reaching a point near the falls of the Genesee river, in the state of New York, his money being exhausted, he was compelled to stop and engage himself as a common laborer in order to replenish his scanty purse. Having obtained a small sum of money he continued his journey until he reached Pittsburgh, arriving there at the beginning of the summer of 1818. He hastily constructed a rude craft, upon which he and his family embarked and proceeded down the river to Cincinnati, where he concluded to stop for a time before continuing to Indiana, his original destination. He remained in Cincinnati nearly two years. During the year 1819, under the ministry of the Rev. I. Smead, a powerful and able preacher, lie joined the Christian church and was immersed in the Ohio river opposite the mouth of the Licking. At the age of thirteen he had joined the Methodist Episcopal church at Durham, Maine, under the preaching of Joshua Soule, afterwards a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church, South but the forcible sermons of Smead having satisfied him that the doctrines and polity of the Christian church were more in accord with the teachings of the Bible, he concluded to join that organization. While still in Cincinnati he was ordained an elder by the minister who received him into membership, and soon after entered the itinerant ministry. In 1820 he, with his family, removed to Indiana and located near Manchester, Dearborn county. He resided for two years on Pipe creek, in Franklin county, but with that exception he made Dearborn county his home the rest of his life.

NOTED MEMBERS OF THE OLD DEBATING CLUB.

"The Pleasant View Debating Club was one of the institutions of that part of the township. It was a fixture for a number of years, its fortunes ebbing and flowing with the changes in the neighborhood. Among its members who since have had opportunity to argue questions on a broader plane are Noah S. Givan, since a member of the Legislature, both House and Senate Noah M. Givan, now deceased, but for years one of the leading attorneys of Missouri Frank R. Dorman, for two terms county sheriff and one term county auditor Joseph Ripley, judge and senator Major Slater and his brother, F. M. Slater, the poet Myron Haynes, one term county auditor Edward P. Ferris, since a state senator.

"Elias Heustis is authority for our saying that James Vaughn kept the first public house in the township, dug the first well, made the first brick kiln, and had the first peach orchard. Daniel Hummer made the first hay press used in the township, and it is also said that he built the first frame house and frame barn in the township. The house is still standing the barn was used for church purposes."


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