Historie Podcaster

Dumbarton - Historie

Dumbarton - Historie


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Dumbarton

Et fylke og en by i Skottland.

(SwStr: t. 636; 1. 204 '; b. 29'; dr. 10 '; s. 10 k; a. 2 32
pdr., 2 12-pdr. hvordan.)

Thistle a side wheel damper, ble tatt til fange av Fort Jackson 1. juni 1864 mens du kjørte blokaden utenfor kysten av North Carolina; sendt til Boston for fordømmelse, kjøpt fra prisretten 20. juli 1864, omdøpt til Dumbarton; og bestilt 13. august 1864, fungerende frivillig løytnant H. Brown i kommando.

Dumbartons første oppgave var å søke etter raider CSS Tallahassee langs Atlanterhavskysten. Hun begynte deretter i North Atlantic Blockading Squadron i Beaufort, NC og tjenestegjorde i blokaden av Wilmington NC, til 6. desember 1864.

Etter å ha vært på Norfolk Navy Yard tjente Dumbarton som flaggskip for kontreadmiral W. Radford i James River, VA., Fra 17. februar til 27. mars 1865. Hun var ute av kommisjon ved Washington Navy Yard til 11. november 1865 da hun ble ført til New York Navy Yard og plassert i vanlig. Hun ble solgt der 15. oktober 1867.


Historien om hagen

I 1921 begynte Mildred Bliss å jobbe med anleggsgartner Beatrix Jones Farrand (1872–1959) for å designe hagen på Dumbarton Oaks. De to kvinnene jobbet i nært samarbeid i nesten tretti år for å oppnå visjonen om terrasserte hager og utsikter, frukthager og kjøkkenhager og en enorm villmark med enger og skogkledde stier. De jobbet også sammen om design og valg av hagepynt - benker, porter, finialer og skulpturer.

Overføringen av Dumbarton Oaks til Harvard University i 1940 inkluderte omtrent seksten dekar land, inkludert de øvre, mer formelle hagene. Tjue-sju dekar, inkludert den mer naturalistiske villmarken, ble begavet til USAs regjering for å opprette Dumbarton Oaks Park. Ytterligere ti dekar ble solgt for å bygge den danske ambassaden.

I 1941, i påvente av de uunngåelige endringene som ville følge med hagens forskjellige funksjon, begynte Farrand å skrive en Plantebok å definere hennes designintensjoner og foreslå passende vedlikeholdspraksis. Hennes forslag til forvaltning viser seg fortsatt å være nyttige i dag.

Etter Beatrix Farrands gradvise pensjonisttilværelse på 1940 -tallet og hennes død i 1959, jobbet andre landskapsarkitekter med endringer i Dumbarton Oaks Garden. Disse inkluderer Ruth Havey (1899–1980), Ralph E. Griswold (1894–1981) og Alden Hopkins (1905–1960). Hagen har blitt vedlikeholdt under veiledning av superintendenter: William Gray fra 1922 til 1937, James Bryce fra 1937 til 1948, Matthew Kearney fra 1948 til 1973, Donald Smith fra 1973 til 1992, Philip Page fra 1992 til 1996 og Gail Griffin fra 1997 til 2018, og Jonathan Kavalier fra 2018 til i dag.


Hva Dumbarton familiejournaler finner du?

Det er 793 folketellingsposter tilgjengelig for etternavnet Dumbarton. Som et vindu inn i deres daglige liv, kan folketellingen i Dumbarton fortelle deg hvor og hvordan dine forfedre jobbet, utdanningsnivå, veteranstatus og mer.

Det er 105 immigrasjonsrekorder tilgjengelig for etternavnet Dumbarton. Passasjerlister er billetten din til å vite når dine forfedre ankom USA, og hvordan de gjorde reisen - fra skipsnavnet til ankomst- og avgangshavner.

Det er 61 militære poster tilgjengelig for etternavnet Dumbarton. For veteranene blant dine Dumbarton -forfedre gir militære samlinger innsikt i hvor og når de tjenestegjorde, og til og med fysiske beskrivelser.

Det er 793 folketellingsposter tilgjengelig for etternavnet Dumbarton. Som et vindu inn i deres daglige liv, kan folketellingen i Dumbarton fortelle deg hvor og hvordan dine forfedre jobbet, utdanningsnivå, veteranstatus og mer.

Det er 105 immigrasjonsrekorder tilgjengelig for etternavnet Dumbarton. Passasjerlister er billetten din til å vite når dine forfedre ankom USA, og hvordan de gjorde reisen - fra skipsnavnet til ankomst- og avgangshavner.

Det er 61 militære poster tilgjengelig for etternavnet Dumbarton. For veteranene blant dine Dumbarton -forfedre gir militære samlinger innsikt i hvor og når de tjenestegjorde, og til og med fysiske beskrivelser.


At Mercy of Foreign Invaders - The Rock Subdued

Britene og piktene var rastløse og underkastet seg aldri helt romersk styre. Når romertiden i Storbritannia tok slutt, rundt 400 e.Kr., falt Alcluith nok en gang i brittiske hender. På forhånd var dette stedet sete for en lang rekke konger av Strathclyde -briterne. Disse påfølgende generasjonene av briter kalte alltid stedet "Dunbritton", som betyr "britenes fort".

Omtrent 756 e.Kr. ble slottet nok en gang bakteppe for opphetet handling da kong Eadgbert av Northumberland, ledsaget av kong Uengust of the Picts, beleiret Dumbarton Castle, erobret det og mistet det igjen flere dager senere. Slottet vises nok en gang i de historiske arkivene i 782 e.Kr., da det ble brent og plyndret 1. januar, selv om regnskapet ikke nevner hvem.

De påfølgende tiårene ble gjenopprettelsen av bosetningen Alcluith, og det fortsatte å være sentrum for Alclud-riket. Men i 872 ble en ny mørk side i historien skrevet. I det året beleiret en styrke av danske og norske vikinger, basert i Irland, slottet ledet av deres små vikingkonger Ivar Beinlaus den lamme (Ímar) ​​og Óláfr den hvite (Amlaíb). Beleiringen varte i fire måneder. Da slottets vannforsyning endelig gikk tom, falt slottet i vikinghender. Vikingene sparket og ødela det fullstendig, og tok med seg en rekke fanger. Etter denne oppsigelsen ble Dumbarton Castle ikke nevnt i arkivene igjen før på 1200 -tallet.

De fleste av strukturene som står i dag ble lagt til senere mens det opprinnelige forsvaret fra jernalderen knapt har overlevd. Det 14. århundre Portcullis Arch (til venstre) er den eldste strukturen som overlevde på Dumbarton Rock. (Venstre: Lairich Rig / CC BY-2.0 Til høyre: Tom Parnell / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Dumbarton Castle vi kan se i dag er nesten helt av middelalderkonstruksjon. Det originale forsvaret fra jernalderen er arkeologisk utgravd og dokumentert. Middelalders festningsverk ble ganske enkelt bygget, eller oppgradert, på toppen av de opprinnelige festningsverkene. Videre har noen av de tidligste middelalderske elementene i slottskomplekset blitt ødelagt gjennom tidene. De eldste segmentene som overlever er Portcullis Arch og vakthuset. De fleste andre bygninger, som artilleriforsvarsplassene, guvernørens hus, fengsel og pulverblader, ble lagt til senere og kan spores til rundt 1700 -tallet. Dumbarton Rock, ved hvis base slottet står, har to merkbare topper. Disse er kjent som Beak og White Tower Crag.


Dumbarton - Historie

ROMANSK INVASON. — Da romerne med sine seirende hærer kom inn i Caledonia, Picts land, finner vi historikerne deres i å beskrive de nordlige grensene for deres erobringer, som ofte henviser til denne gamle byen, i en veldig tidlig periode, under navnet på Alcluith eller Alcluyd. Atticotti, en veldig kraftig og formidabel stamme, som bodde langs den nordlige bredden av elven Clyde, var dens daværende eiere. Atticotti er et navn som importerer beboere langs ekstremiteten av den kaledonske skogen. Etterkommerne til dette folket ble aldri helt undertrykt eller forvist fra sine jaktområder av sine romerske inntrengere. Ptolemaios, en romersk forfatter, sier at Gadeni, en annen stamme av de opprinnelige innbyggerne, bodde på den sørlige bredden av Clyde. Pinkerton, i sin undersøkelse av de historiske antikviteter i Skottland, hevder uten tvil at Atticotti -stammen var de gamle innbyggerne i Dumbartonshire, og han siterer Richard av Cirencester, en gammel historiker, som bekrefter dette. (Se bok I. kap. 6.) Oversettelsen av passasjen, fra den originale latinen til Richard, er som følger: — & quot Atticotti -stammen fremdeles • bebodd noe lavere nedover bredden av Clotto (eller Clyde), en nasjon da og etterpå formidabel for hele Storbritannia. Her ble det sett en stor innsjø (Lochlomond), hvis navn tidligere var Lyncalidor nær munningen som byen Aicluith, grunnlagt av romerne, sto et navn gitt på den en kort tid tidligere av den romerske generalen Theodosius, som hadde inntok provinsen okkupert av barbarene. Med dette kunne ingen by sammenlignes, fordi den til det siste hadde påført angrepene på den romerske fienden etter at de andre provinsene rundt hadde blitt helt underlagt. & Quot

Byen Alcluith lå dermed i umiddelbar nærhet, og dannet den hyggelige og herlige vestlige forstaden til den omfattende romerske muren som ble reist mellom Clyde og Forth. Selv om den var en barbarisk provins, ser det ut til at den i begynnelsen nobelt nektet å underkaste seg den grusomme trælen til en fremmed fiende, men ble til slutt erobret. Det foraktet imidlertid å bli sideelv til fiendene, og gjorde igjen opprør fra det romerske åket. Like etter ble det igjen gjenvunnet av de seirende romerske soldatene, ledet av deres fryktløse general Theodosius. Fra gamle romerske og andre forfattere ser det ut til at denne byen Alcluith (for så ble det kalt) ble grunnlagt og bygget av denne romerske generalen.

I år 367 sendte den romerske keiseren Valentinian den første Theodosius sin general igjen til Storbritannia mot piktene og skottene, som ikke bare frastøtte dem, men grep landene sine mellom murene og reiste dem til en provins som ble oppkalt etter navnet på keiseren Valencia. Han forsterket sine nordlige og vestlige grenser sterkt, mellom Clyde og Forth, og i 368 bygde Theodosia eller Alcluith som en høyborg og grenseby. Derfor ble dette stedet etterpå betraktet av Bede og andre historikere som den store grensen mellom briterne og piktene. (Se Richard, bok I. kap. 7.)

Etterkommerne av Atticotti -stammen bebod lenge de nordlige grensene og bredden av Clyde. Etter mange år med krig og mange konflikter med andre stammer, som i stor grad misunnet dem deres attraktive land, var de mye ødelagte, men de forble fortsatt i sine gamle domener ved dødsfallet til Bede, som var en munkisk historiker, og som døde i året 734. De ble fremdeles anerkjent som et distinkt og eget folk, selv i noen aldre etter.

Romerne forlot frivillig Storbritannia omtrent år 409 etter den kristne tiden. Britene ba imidlertid om året 421 om hjelp mot piktene og skottene. Den romerske hæren ankom og frastøtte fienden, og fikk briterne til å bygge en torvmur eller voll på marsjen mellom Clyde og Forth, ettersom den tidligere gråten var blitt kastet helt ned. Bode gir en veldig tydelig og liten beretning om denne veggen (kap. I. kap. 12), som når, sier han, & quot; fra nærheten av byen Alcluith til et sted omtrent to mil vest for Abercorn, som ligger på sørbredden of the Forth, kalt Cairn-in. & quot Antoninus-veggen ble bygget av torv på et steinfundament, og var omtrent fire meter eller tolv fot tykk. De romerske legionene som ble ansatt for å oppføre den, var den andre, den sjette og den tjuende, og den tjuende, og tre legioner som ville utgjøre trettiseks tusen mann. .

De eneste restene nå av denne veggen krysser prestegjeldene Kilsyth og New Kilpatrick, og er å se på Dunglass på kanten av Clyde. Det er også en bro med to buer i landsbyen Duntocher. Disse gamle relikviene er nå over 1400 år gamle. Denne broen ble veldig falleferdig, men ble forbedret og reparert under ledelse, og på bekostning av avdøde Lord Blantyre, som restaurerte den opprinnelige inskripsjonen, som er meislet på en stor stein plassert i bygningen. til det, til minne om hans rosende smak og iver for klassiske antikviteter. Inskripsjonen er på latin. Den engelske oversettelsen går slik:-& quot vår Herres år 1772. & quot

Følgende beskrivelse av de gamle kaledonerne er gitt av Dio, en romersk historiker på tidspunktet da Severus den romerske keiseren invaderte landet deres i år 183: det vil bli funnet veldig slående og interessant.

Han sier — & quot Av de barbariske briterne er det to store nasjoner, kalt Caledoni og M

eatse for resten er generelt forstått i disse. Maatte bor i nærheten av den store muren som deler øya i to deler som kaledonierne bor utenfor dem. De har begge robuste og tørre fjell og ørkensletter fulle av myrer. De har verken slott eller byer, og de dyrker heller ikke bakken, men lever hovedsakelig av flokkene sine og av jakta og fruktene på noen trær. De spiser ingen fisk, selv om de er mange. De bor i frekke telt, ganske nakne og uten busker. Hustruer de har til felles, og avler opp alle barna sine til felles. Deres generelle styreform er demokratisk. De er avhengige av ran, slåss i biler og har veldig små raske hester. Infanteriet deres er utrolig raskt løpende, og også bemerkelsesverdig for frimodighet og fasthet i å stå foran en fiende. Rustningen deres består av et skjold og et kort spyd, i den nedre enden av det er et stort, uskadelig eple, hvis lyd, når den blir slått, ofte skremmer en fiende: de har også dolk. Hunger, kulde og all slags arbeid de kan bære, for de vil til og med stå i myrene i mange dager opp til halsen i vann, og i skogen vil de leve på bark og røtter av trær. De tilbereder en bestemt type mat ved mange anledninger, hvorav de bare føler seg litt på størrelse med en bønne, og føler seg verken sultne eller tørste i en lengre periode. Slik er Storbritannia, og slik er innbyggerne i det landet som så dristig skilte seg ut mot romerne. At det er en øy har blitt vist før. Lengden er syv tusen hundre og tretti-to stadier (åtte stadier er omtrent en engelsk mil). Dens ytterste bredde to tusen tre hundre og ti stadier: den minste bredden tre hundre stadioner. Av denne øya er ikke mye mindre enn halvparten erobret av Severus, og han, som ønsket å redusere helheten under egen kraft, gikk inn i Caledonia. I marsjen møtte han usigelige vanskeligheter ved å felle skog, utjevne eminer, heve banker over myrer og bygge broer over elver, løgn utkjempet ingen kamper, fienden dukket aldri opp i stridsarrangement, men de plasserte sau og okser på råd av våre tropper, at mens soldatene våre forsøkte å gripe dem og ved at svindelen ble trukket inn i urenheter, kunne de lettere bli avskåret. Innsjøene var på samme måte ødeleggende for våre menn ved å dele dem, slik at de falt i bakhold og selv om de ikke kunne bringes av, ble de drept av vår egen hær, for at de ikke skulle falle i fiendens hender. På grunn av disse årsakene døde det ikke mindre enn femti tusen av våre tropper. Severus stoppet imidlertid ikke før han hadde nådd den ekstreme delen av øya, da han flittig bemerket mangfoldet av solforløpet og lengden på dag og natt om sommeren og vinteren. Til slutt, etter å ha blitt båret gjennom det meste av det fiendtlige landet, (for på grunn av sin svakhet ble han vanligvis båret i et åpent kull), vendte han tilbake til de vennlige delene av øya, hvor de nordlige barbariske briterne ble tvunget til å inngå en slags allianse, forutsatt at de gir etter for dem en liten del av landet sitt. & quot

Dio forteller deretter at Severus, på en konferanse med kaledonerne, nesten hadde blitt drept av sønnen Antoninus Caracalla. Deretter tilføyer han — & quot

& quot La ingen slippe unna hendene og grusom slakting
Ikke engang babyen ennå skyldløs i livmoren. & Quot

Herodian, en annen historiker, legger til — & quot I første omgang sørget Severus for å dekke myren sikkert med broer, 80 for at soldatene hans kunne stå og kjempe på fast grunn. havet og gjennom disse myrene svømmer barbarerne selv ofte eller vasser, senket til magen i gjørme og er ofte nakne, uavhengig av slimet#8212 for de er uvitende om bruk av klær. De omkranser magen og halsen med jern, og synes dette er et ornament og et bevis på rikdom, på samme måte som gull gjøres med andre barbarer. Dessuten markerer de kroppene sine med forskjellige bilder og former for en rekke dyr, på grunn av hvilke de ikke kler seg selv, minst de skulle dekke maleriene av kroppen deres, men de er et mest krigisk folk og gleder seg over slakting. Armene deres består av et smalt skjold og en lanse, med et sverd som slår i nakne kropper. De er nesten helt uvitende om bruk av et strøk med post eller hjelm, og tenker på disse hindringene i forbifarten. gjennom myrene, som vanligvis er dekket med damp, og mørke med utpust. & quot

Solinus, en annen romersk historiker, (kap. 25,) sier —. & quot Kaledonierne og briterne er villige og krigeriske. Etter kamp flekker seierherrene ansiktet med blodet fra sine slaktede fiender. Hvis en kvinne får et mannbarn, blir hans aller første mat plassert på ektemannens sverd og forsiktig satt i den lille munnen med våpens spiss, mens den kjærlige moren seriøst gir sine løfter om at sønnen hennes møter kanskje ikke døden, men i slagmarken og i våpen. & quot

Etter å ha gitt deg en autentisk beskrivelse, av romerske forfattere, av våre fjerntliggende forfedre, i deres villige tilstand og deres frekke krigeriske utseende, la meg nå legge til et veldig kort utdrag om deres grove avgudsdyrkelse og grusomme tilbedelsesmåte.

Sammes, en gammel historiker, i sine antikviteter i Storbritannia, observerer de innfødte hyllet idolet Rugyvith, som hadde syv ansikter til avgudet Porevith, som hadde fem hoder og til Porenuth, som hadde fire ansikter knyttet til hodet hans, og ett ansikt til brystet. & quot (side 454.) Denne forfatteren nevner blant annet at de ofret mennesker til sine avguder når de behandlet de gamle briternes guder. "De laget," sier han, & kvotestatue eller bilde av en mann med store dimensjoner, hvis lemmer besto av kvister som var vevd sammen etter kurvmåten, de fylte med levende mennesker, og deretter satte de fyr på og fortærte dem i flammene . & quot (side 104.)

Kaledonierne, skottene og piktene syntes å ha lignet hverandre på oppførsel og grusomhet, og å ha utøvd denne siste egenskapen uten skrupler på de romerske kolonistene. Disse nasjonene konverterte ofte sitt shaggy og mattete hår til en art av naturlig hodekjole, som tjente enten til hjelm eller maske, som det ble ansett som nødvendig. Husene deres var vanligvis konstruert av wattles, eller i farligere tider gravde de seg under bakken i lange smale, kronglete utgravninger, hvorav noen fortsatt eksisterer, og ideen om det synes å ha blitt foreslått av en kanin-warren. Selv over disse ville menneskene, som bodde i et like villig land som dem selv, oppstod rettferdighetssolen med helbredelse under vingene.

Gode ​​menn, som Columba og hans tilhengere, på hvem navnet på & quotsaint & quot (ikke brukt da i overtroisk forstand) var rettferdig, gitt, og som livet og gledene i denne verden var som ingenting, så de kunne bare kalle fortapelse syndere til å omfavne evangeliet, og slike hengivne menn påtok seg edelt, under guddommelig nåde, og lyktes lykkelig i den farlige oppgaven å opplyse disse uvitende villmennene i kristendommens sublime sannheter.

Vi har nå lagt for våre lesere en kort skisse av hva vårt opprinnelige land opprinnelig var i svunne tider, og dermed forberedte deres allerede velinformerte sinn for den tidlige historien til vårt eget favoriserte sted hvor våre frekke Atticotti-forfedre varierte skog og ørkener i alle de villskap i deres usiviliserte vaner.

Hvordan burde vi nå med ærlig gratulasjon hylle de fantastiske og forbløffende forandringene som har skjedd i vårt lykkelige land siden sivilisasjonens første daggry, og spesielt siden kristendommens strålende sol stod opp og lyste over De britiske øyer. La oss derfor være med å dele det velsignede evangeliet videre til andre ville og avgudsdyrkende nasjoner, slik det ble gjort med våre forfedre snart. Etter begynnelsen av den kristne æra.

DUMBARTON. — Navnet på denne byen ser ut til å ha gjennomgått flere endringer i løpet av årene. Det ser ut til å ha vært nært forbundet med den for sin romantiske stein og slott, som ligger i umiddelbar nærhet. Mange eldgamle forfattere har antatt at det var Baiclutha of Ossian, som skrev i det fjerde århundre, hvis fall således er vakkert beskrevet av Carthon, dets daværende eier. Jeg har sett veggene i Balclutha, men de var øde. Brannen hadde runget i gangene, og stemmen til folket høres ikke lenger. Strømmen av Clutha ble fjernet fra stedet ved at veggene falt. Tistelen rister der det ensomme hodet. Reven ser ut av vinduet det gresset på veggene som veier rundt hodet hans. Øde er boligen til Moina stillheten er i huset til hennes fedre. Jeg kommer, sa den store Classamor, i mitt grenseskip, til Balcluthas tårnvegger. Vinden hadde bruset bak seilene mine, og Clutlas bekker mottok mitt mørke brystfartøy. & Quot (Ossians dikt, bind i. S. 78-80.)

Den fornemme festningen under hvis beskyttelse byen har forblitt trygg i evigheter, synes opprinnelig å ha gitt navn til den .__ Alcluyd eller Alcluith Al, på walisisk, betyr Rock. Petracloethe betyr Rock of Clyde. Det var fra en veldig fjern alder, kongesetet eller residensen til en lang rekke gamle konger av Strathclyde -briterne, som tidligere regjerte enten innenfor murene på slottet eller i bydelene. Chalmers, i Gazetteer, sier, & quot At det i en veldig tidlig tid var en kirke her, som var det gamle setet for Reguli of the Strathclyde Britons. & Quot Det er mer enn sannsynlig at denne kirken var den som skulle være grunnlagt av Columba, og som det umiddelbart vil bli referert til.

Adomnan, som ble valgt til Abbed of Ions, eller Icolumbkill, i år 679, skrev Life of Saint Columba, i tre bøker. I den første boken i manuskriptvolumene —foreliggende i Advocates 'Library, Edinburgh —, løper det fjortende kapitlet slik: & quotA profeti om den hellige mannen (som betyr St. Columba) angående kong Roderick, sønn av Totail, som regjerte i Petracloethe , eller Rock of the Clyde. & quot Denne kongen sies å ha vært en veldig sjenerøs monark, og ble mye rost av sine samtidige. Han er av noen forfattere utpekt som & quotRhyd-derech-hael ,, the bountiful King of the Britons on the Cluyd. & Quot

"De påfølgende generasjonene av de opprinnelige briterne," sier Camden, en tidlig forfatter, "kalte denne byen Dunbritton, eller Fort of the Britons." . (Som sitert i Chalmers's Caledonia, bind iii, s. 856.)

Året 756 sies av iloveden og Camden, som skrev etter ham, for å ha vært epoken med erobringen av Alcluith eller Dunbritton av Eadgbert, kongen av Northumberland, og Uengust, kongen av piktene, som med sine felles styrker beleiret slottet , og brakte den til en så desperat ekstremitet at den ble gjengitt for dem ved komposisjon. Vilkårene for overgivelse synes å være de av hyllest.

I 782 ble Alcluyd lagt i aske, 1. januar, men av hvem dukker ikke opp, ettersom historien ikke registrerer navnene på de ødeleggende inntrengerne.

Det ble beleiret igjen nitti år alter, dvs. i året 872, av danskene og nordmennene, under Olive og Ivar, deres småkonger som etter å ha besatt det fire måneder, til slutt ødela det. Det var en tradisjon på denne tiden, at skyene i løpet av denne perioden regnet med blod i syv. dager over hele Storbritannia, og at til og med melk, ost og smør ble omdannet til blod.

Denne gamle byen ser ut til å ha vært den kongelige residensen og setet for kongene til Strathclyde -briterne, og teatret for deres blodige kriger og konflikter med andre frekke stammer og nasjoner. Rhyd-derech-hael, The Bountiful, kjempet en kamp med to av sine nærliggende småprinser —Guendolaw og Aedan, som begge hadde gjort opprør fra sin troskap til tronen. Guendolaw, som falt i dette slaget, var en varm beskytter av & quot; Merlin the Wild, & quot; som var en innfødt poet av, og som generelt bodde på, Alcluith, som leseren vil høre av og bye. Roderick, som det ble bemerket før, var en monark så sjenerøs at han fikk epitetet & quotHael & quot vedlagt navnet hans, noe som betyr liberal, rikelig og han var det i alle sine ord og handlinger, som han ble sterkt hyllet og rost for. (Se Pinkertons antikviteter i Skottland.)

I Life of Gildas, utgitt av Mabilon, en fransk forfatter, opplyser forfatteren at Gildas ble født på Aleluith i begynnelsen av det femte århundre og at faren var en konge i det landet, og ble etterfulgt av hans eldste sønn Hoel. Han antar at Strathclyde -britenes rike skal ha inkludert Dumbartonshire, Renfrewshire og den øvre delen av Lanarkshire og ha utvidet seg til hele Valentia of the Romans — være omtrent åtti miles lang og førti bred. Theodosia eller Aicluith ble generelt sett sett på som hovedbyen i provinsen, og dens sterke festning, naturlig ugjennomtrengelig, ble sett på avstand ruvende, som Akropolis i Korint, på toppen av en høy stein som stiger opp fra en flat slette. Det ble dermed selvfølgelig rikets hovedstad. Følgende er en kronologisk liste over de gamle kongene som regjerte i Alcluith over Strathclyde-briterne, ifølge Ulsters annaler, som sitert av Pinkerton i hans antikviteter i Skottland:-

1. Caunus, kongen av Aicluith, regjerte omkring 390 e.Kr.
2. Inwald regjerte som konge av Strathclyde, på Alcluith, på St. Ninnians tid, eller omtrent år 412.
3. Morti Arthur regjerte omtrent år 460.
4. Konstantin regjerte omtrent år 510.
5. Guendolaw regjerte omtrent år 540.
6. Rodericus, Roderick eller Rhyd-derech-hael, regjerte i 560. [Jocelyn, en popisk munk, fra Furness, i Lancashire, som skrev i 1180, uttaler at & quotLangueth & quot var navnet på Rodericks dronning.]
7. Urien regjerte i 575.
8. Hoel, sønn av Roderick, regjerte ca 585.
9. Morkin regjerte i år 590.
10. Guiret, konge av Aiclyde, døde i år 660.
11. Donal, sønn av Owen, konge av Aicluith, døde i år 693.
12. Bile, kongen av briterne i Strathcluyd, døde i 724.
13. Artga, kongen av briterne i Strathcluyd, ble drept av Konstantin, den andre kongen av piktene, i 874.
14. Dunwallon, den siste kongen av briterne i Strathcluyd, i 972, dro til Roma og døde der like etter.

Jeg tror at noen av mine lesere ikke engang hadde forestilt seg at nå vår lille lille burgh og dens omgivelser er kongelig og innviet bakke, som en lang liste med gamle konger regjerte på, og hvor villige krigere kjempet og falt. Ja, på den enestående rocken har mange merkelige sanguinariske scener blitt gjennomført, og hvis steinene og rocken var vokale, kunne de fortelle mange en tragisk historie om barbarisk grusomhet og ve, begått i dager med mørke for lenge siden, så vel som i mer raffinert periode i en senere alder. Men uten å moralisere ytterligere for tiden, fortsetter vi nå med å oppregne en liste over historikere som vår gamle by og dens forsteder har født.

Følgende gamle forfattere og historikere sies å ha hatt sitt fødested i Alcluith eller i umiddelbar nærhet:-

1.. Saint Patrick ble født på Nemthur, nær Aicluith eller Dunbritton. (Nemthur er det romerske navnet på Old Kilpatrick, en landsby på den nordlige bredden av Clyde, nær avslutningen av den gamle romerske muren.) Fra hans eget navn Patricius ser det ut til å ha vært opprinnelig av romersk utvinning. Han ble født omtrent år 400, da den romerske hæren hadde Valentia. Noen historikere har imidlertid hardt hevdet at han ble født i byen Alcluith. (Se Aikman's History of Scotland, vol. I. s. 220 —note.)

2d. Gildas Albanius, eller den britiske Gildas, ble født på Aicluith omtrent år 426. Faren Caunus var konge i det landet, som også var far til Anuerin. Denne Gildas var en from munk og historiker.

3d. Anuerin, bror til den sist navngitte, var en poet. Diktene hans ble oversatt og utgitt rundt slutten av det syttende århundre.

4.. Merlin Caledonius, eller & quotMerlin the Wild, & quot var innfødt i Aicluith. Denne veldig ekstraordinære personligheten blomstret i tiden til Roderick Hail, den overdådige kongen av britene, og var dermed en samtid med Kentigern eller Saint Mungo, som reiste Cathedral Church of Glasgow, for nesten 1300 år siden, og som levde rundt år 670 Et merkelig liv av Merlin the Wild, på latinsk vers, av Geofrey fra Monmouth, eksisterer fortsatt. Ved sine enestående vaner og oppførsel, i det han ble avdekket både i hode og føtter, med bare et løst stykke grov klut eller lurvete dyrs hud pakket rundt hans nakne kropp og ved å leve generelt i skog og grotter, med andre særpreg, oppnådde han i de frekke aldre omdømmet til en profet. Den moderne innbyggeren i Dumbarton, i fantasi, tror kanskje at han ser ham langsomt gå i de nå lange oversvømte gatene og banene i det gamle Aicluith, dekket av de uhyggelige habilimentene til et vilt liv, uttale religiøse følelser og belastninger av innfødt poesi, som sannsynligvis slo tilhørerne med ærbødighet og ærefrykt. John Fordun, som skrev sin historie om Skottland i 1420, har en lang historie om Merlin the Wild. (Bok 3, s. 31, 32.) Flere sider i Merlins dikt viser tydelig at hans fødested var Aicluith, og at hjemlandet hans var Caledonia, Picts land. Guendolaw, en konge som tidligere er nevnt, var en varm beskytter av Merlin the Wild.

Poesi ble mye dyrket i en tidlig periode av de gamle skottene og briterne. Følgende er et eksemplar og oversettelsen av to strofer:-

& quotJomfru med det vakre ansiktet, lær versene mine:
Du husker dem, de vil lure dine sløve timer,
Når kjæresten din er langt unna, og når hjertets ungdom
Vil dukke opp i minnet ditt.

Vi sto sammen på gressgresset da
Jenta med de vakre låsene og det søte ansiktet,
Omfattet meg med armene, gråt bittert
Og med lin hvitere enn snø, hun
Tørket de tykke fallende tårene fra hennes strålende øyne. & Quot

I år 575, og under kong Uriens regjeringstid, blomstret det i hans domstoler disse tre berømte bard., Taliesin, Anuerin, som allerede er nevnt, og Lynarch-Ken. Eksempler på deres frekke poesi har blitt utgitt av historikeren Evans. These are a few of our native ancient poets and writers who arose, flourished, and faded on our own soil, and whose names have been thus collected from the rubbish of antiquity, and snatched from the grave of oblivion, to which they were quickly descending.

As a proof that learning was much cultivated at a very early period in Scotland, the abbots, priors, and monks of Iona, and other seminaries, excelled much in literature. Mackinnon and Mackenzie, two of the famed Ionian abbots, have their names inscribed on their tomb-stones on that island. An abbess, whose remains are said to moulder side by side, is designed, "Ann, the daughter of Donald, the son of Charles." The inscription is in Latin and Gaelic, and is still quite legible, although executed with the rude chisel more than a thousand years ago.

The public was greatly interested in the preservation of Ions, as it was at one period the repository of most of the Scottish records. The Ionian library—if we can depend on the testimony of Boethius, who was first principal of Aberdeen college must have been invaluable. From that author we learn that Fergus Second, who assisted Alaric the Goth in the sacking of Rome, brought away a chest full of books, which he presented to the monastery of Ions. A small parcel of them was, in 1525, carried to Aberdeen, and great pains were taken to unfold and decipher them, but through great age very little of them could be read. The register and records of the island, however, were all written on parchment, and it is probable that they, along with more antique and valuable records, were all destroyed by the violent changes which took place at the Reformation, which, in many instances, was a war against history and science, as it was against idolatry and superstition. (See Pennant's Second Tour, page 167.) Genuine religion, science, and literature, were beyond a doubt nourished and cultivated in the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries, by Saint Columba and his Ionian disciples, even to a considerable extent yet in the succeeding centuries there followed a dark historical night, when scarcely a glimmering star appeared. But even amidst the darkness of the middle ages there was always a faint twilight, like that auspicious gleam which in a summer's night fills up the interval between the setting and the rising sun. In Scotland not a native writer arose from the eighth till nearly the commencement of the thirteenth century. From 843 till 106 is the most obscure period of Scottish history, and is often denominated "the leaden age." Thus there was a long dark night previous to the dawn of a clearer day. Indeed, over all Europe, as is well known, the ninth and tenth centuries form the deepest gloom between ancient and modern day. In the eighth century obscure night closes in upon us but, in the twelfth and thirteenth, a new morning arises and shines onward to the bright effulgence of meridian day.

The terrors of war, during even the fifth and sixth centuries, drove the Christian Scots and Britons to seek refuge in the extremities of the island. From this period genuine religion began to decline in the country, and was fast approaching to a complete exit, when two circumstances, concomitant with the labours of Columba, contributed to its revival and establishment. Ethelbert, King of Kent, had married a Christian princess of the house of Clovis: in her marriage stipulations she had secured her right to maintain inviolate her religion. This event was a happy preparative to the mission which Gregory was induced to set on foot, from a circumstance which transpired some time before his elevation to the Pontificate. Walking in the market-place at Rome one day, he observed a number of youths exposed to sale: struck with their fine ruddy appearance, he asked their country being told they were Angles, he replied, "They might with propriety be called angels. It is a pity (added he) that the Prince of Darkness should hold so fair a prey." Inquiring further into their province, he was informed that they came from Dclii (that is, Northumberland): "Deiri! (replied he) that is happy they shall be snatched from God's wrath, and made heirs of mercy." Asking the name of their king, he was informed it was Ella: "Alleluia! (cried he) God's praises shall be sung in that country."

This association of ideas, however fanciful, produced considerable impression upon the mind of Gregory, and he offered himself as a missionary to Britain but the Roman Church at that time opposing his wishes, he declined to insist on the experiment. But it seems that Gregory lost not the impulse for soon after his consecration, he looked out some agents whom he thought fit to carry forward the grand design.

In the year 597, Gregory matured his plan, and sent over forty monks or missionaries, with one at their head named Austin, a man of very singular qualifications. After combating many difficulties and many fears, these holy men arrived in the dominions of Ethelbert, and laid before him the design of their embassy. The prince received them courteously, and appointed them a suitable place of abode in the isle of Thanet. After a little time they were admitted to an audience, and suffered to open more fully the great object of their mission. Austin proceeded to lay before the king the principal doctrines of the Christian faith, and zealously urged the monarch to embrace that glorious dispensation which revealed a kingdom eternal in the heavens. "Your speech and promises," said Ethelbert, "are fair but as they are novel and untried, I cannot yield my assent, and give up the principles so long embraced by my ancestors. You are at liberty, however, to continue here, without fear of molestation and as you have performed so great a journey, entirely, as it seems, for what you believe to be for our advantage, I will that you be furnished with every necessary supply, and permit you to hold forth the faith of your religion to my subjects." Ethelbert accordingly appointed them a mansion in the royal city Dorobernium, now called Canterbury. Thus settled, Austin and his colleagues, attended with the auspices of the queen, proceeded to discharge the great duties of Christian missionaries, and the effect was that many were prevailed on to renounce idolatry and to be baptised into the faith of Christ. Among these converts was the king himself, which acquisition contributed greatly to forward the Christian cause. Thus, after toiling through a long dismal night of superstitious and heathen darkness, and regions of the shadow of death, a beam of gospel day, as the morning spread upon the mountains, revives the fainting spirit. (See Sabines' Church History.)

The Dalriads, a colony of the ancient Scoti, from Ireland, settled in Argyllshire at an early period, and thus became next neighbours to the early Britons in Strathclyde. They latterly formed a mutual alliance, and protected each other for a long period although, in very early ages, their petty kings, with their respective navies, had many a deadly and sanguinary battle on the Firth of Clyde. The ancient Sooti were continually passing and repassing the firth in their rude shaped "shallops, curracha, and crearies," to annoy and molest the courageous Britons on their own shores. The promontory and lands of Argyll, as possessed by this early tribe, was anciently called Dalriada. It is a singular fact, that Jocelyn, a monkish historian, mentioned already, who wrote in the eleventh century, says, "that the city of Glasgow, in the early ages of antiquity, was called Cathures "—probably this was its Roman name-.– and it was then only a small village: it is now supposed to be the largest city of the Empire. During the Roman period, and long after their departure, the original inhabitants, viz. the Atticotti and Dairiad tribes, inhabited the whole country from Lochflne the Lilamonius of Richard, on the west to the eastward, beyond the river Leven, and bounded by the Longcraig and Dumbuck, which were the southern termination of the range of the Grampian Mountains, in the vicinity of the Roman wall. These two races, however, were latterly immerged into, and incorporated with, and, in the course of ages, became undistinguished from, the Picts and Britons.

ACCOUNT OF THE BRITONS.—Their boats were usually made of osiers interwoven and covered with skins of wild beasts, being about five feet long and three broad, as appears from the historians Solinus, Gildas, and Ninius. Their Dress.—Gildas mentions (chap. 15) the Picts and Britons as being partly clothed, or at least generally girt about the middle with a kind of cloth: this was in the fifth century. In the sixth century, when Saint Columba lived, Adomnan his biographer drops no hint whatever of dress. It appears that the Caledonians, like the ancient Germans, went almost naked. Roman writers sometimes mention them as being naked and, indeed, if we saw a savage with only a wild deer's skin thrown loosely over his shoulders, and the rest of his body quite uncovered, we would, like those writers, be inclined to call them naked. The primitive Celtic dress was only a skin loosely thrown over the shoulders, and a piece of coarse rude-made cloth tied round the middle. In the thirteenth century, however, the women among the ancient Scots were rather elegantly dressed. The bishop of Ross says, "that they were clothed with purple and embroidery of the most exquisite workmanship, with bracelets and necklaces on their arms and necks, so as to make a most graceful appearance."

FUNERAL RITES.—The bodies of the common people and of enemies were buried those of chiefs and kings burned, if opportunity allowed. When burned, the ashes were put into earthen urns, as was done among the Greeks and Romans.

AGE OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS.—"It is a very striking circumstance," says an early historian, "that the ancient Britons and Caledonians generally lived to a very great age-140 and 150—and many instances of some of them having lived to 160 years." This may be accounted for, in a great measure, by their having lived chiefly on the produce of the chase, and their drink being the pure unadulterated water of the running brook: in a word, they were real teetotalers.

SAINT COLUMBA.—Columba the apostle, as he has been called, of the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, was the founder and first abbot of the famous monastery of Iona. Iona means "the Island of the Waves." It early became the light of the western world, whence savage nations derived the benefits of knowledge and the blessings of the Christian religion: it stands nine miles from Staffa, and is separated from the island of Mull by a small strait. In any other situation the remains of Iona would be consigned to neglect and oblivion but standing as it does the solitary monument of the religion and literature of past ages, its silent and ruined structures are, by the tourist and the traveller, contemplated with profound awe and veneration.

An account of the life of Columba was written in Latin by two of his successors, Cummin and Adomnan. The former wrote about sixty, and the latter about eighty-three years after his death. Their writings are often interspersed with marvellous details of visions and prophecies, to many of which the modern historian ought to pay little or no regard. Dr. Smith, late minister of Campbelton, wrote a history of the life of Columba, about the beginning of this century, from which some of the following short notices are gleaned:—We make these extracts from the life of this singular man, under the firm conviction and deep impression that the "College Bow" is an ancient Gothic vestige of one of Columba's religious and scientific seminaries and under whose benign influence many were erected, in the dark ages of the fifth and sixth centuries, in the west of Scotland, of which the Ionian was the principal and the origin. It is remarked by ancient writers, especially by Jocelyn, (chap. 89,) that Columba erected more than 300 churches, colleges, and monasteries, in Scotland and Ireland. Saint Constantine, one of his disciples, is said, by Fordun the historian, to have presided over the monastery of Govan, upon the Clyde and to have converted the people of Kintyre to the Christian faith, where he nobly suffered martyrdom. The college at Aicluith or Dumbarton is apparently of a very remote age, and most probably was founded by Columba, or some of his religious successors, under the auspices of Brudius the Seventh, a Pictish king, in 842, who, history says, erected the church and college of Lochleven. (See Pinkerton's Antiquities of Scotland.) In the chartularies of Lennox and Paisley our vicinity is expressly called Lochleven. (See charters of Lennox and Paisley.) The church, chapel, and adjoining hospital, which more modern historians refer to as being founded here by the Duchess of Albany and Countess of Lennox in the year 1450, relate to the Old Parish Church and steeple, &c. on the site of which the present new church and steeple were erected in the year 1811. With the authorities above referred to, and from the zealous labours of Columba and his followers to promulgate the pure gospel, and raise seminaries of religion and learning at an early period in Scotland, and from the apparent age of the "College Bow," we draw the unhesitating conclui. that it must have been reared in an early age by him or i some of his monastic Christian brethren of Iona. it is likely that Saint Cairan, who was cotemporary with Columba, superintended the College of Aicluith'as we find the fountain of our public wells, at Levengrove, called Saint Cheryes or Saint Cairan's Well. (See Burgh Records, 1709.) Saint Cairan was also, for a short time, coadjutor with Saint Constantine in presiding over the monastery at Govan.

Bode tells us expressly that Columba arrived at Iona when Brudius, a most powerful king, reigned over the Picts and it was in the ninth year of his reign and that he converted that nation and the Scots to the faith of Christ by his zealous preaching and example. The Ionian monastery and college was a very different society from the later Roman Catholic monkish institutions for although the Ionian brethren had certain rules, and might deem certain religious regulations necessary, yet their grand and primary design was, by communicating instruction, to train up others for the sacred work of the ministry. These societies, which sprung from them, became the foundation seminaries of the Church of Scotland. They lived, after the example of the venerable fathers and early Christian pastors, by the labour of their own hands.

Columba was originally a native of Ireland, descended from the royal family of that kingdom, and nearly allied to the kings of Scotland: he was born in the year 521: he laboured in the cause of the Saviour for many years in his native country, and was the means of diffusing the Gospel far and wide. Ireland had then, for a long time previously, enjoyed the light of the Gospel, while the Isles and northern parts of Scotland were still covered with heathen darkness, superstition, and idolatry. On these dismal regions Columba looked with a pitying eye, and resolved to become the apostle of the savage Western Isles. Accordingly, in the year 563, he set out from Ireland in a wicker boat covered with hides, accompanied by twelve of his followers and friends, and landed on the island of Iona. He was now in the forty-second year of his age, and required all the vigour of body and mind he possessed to encounter the very great difficulties which presented themselves. The barbarous state of the nation—the opposition of the priests and Druids—the situation of the country, wild, woody, mountainous, and infested with wild beasts—the austerity of his own manners, sometimes fasting for whole days, and even watching and praying for whole nights, were all against his philanthropic mission. He often denied himself the comforts and enjoyments of life. Even at his seventy-sixth year, in his various travellings, his bed was often the bare ground, and a stone his pillow. These were all circumstances very unfavourable in appearance to his making many proselytes. Columba was also primate, and superintended all the affairs of the Pictish, Scottish, and Irish churches, with all their dependencies, and was highly reverenced not only by the king of the Picts, but also by all the neighbouring princes, who courted his acquaintance, and liberally assisted him in all his expensive undertakings. Wherever he visited abroad he was received with the highest demonstration of respect and joy. Crowds attended him on the public highways, and to the places where he lodged at night the respective neighbourhoods sent stores of provisions of every kind to entertain him. When at home he was resorted to for aid and advice, as a physician of both soul and body, by vast multitudes of every rank and denomination: even the little Ionian islet, the place of his more perrnanent residence, was considered as peculiarly sacred and holy and to repose in the dust of it became for ages an object of ambition to kings, princes, and potentates. According to Buchanan the historian, forty-eight kings of Scotland, four of Ireland, and eight of Norway, were interred in Iona—in all sixty kings!! This monastery was perhaps the chief seminary of Christians at the time in Europe, and the famed nursery from which not only all the other monasteries, and above three hundred and eight churches which he himself had established, but also many of the neighbouring nations, were supplied with learned divines and able pastors. It must also be observed, that Columba had a very extraordinary share of address,.of personal accomplishments, and colloquial talents, when he so effectually recommended himself wherever he went, and gained such ascendancy over so many princes, as to be revered and patronised by them all, even when they were in a state of barbarism, and were seldom at peace amongst themselves. To his many other talents, accompanied with the most engaging manners and a cheerful countenance, was joined another very essential property in a preacher, a most powerful and commanding voice, which Adomnan says he could raise on occasions so as to resemble peals of thunder, and make it to be heard distinctly a mile's distance when he chanted psalms.

His natural endowments were highly cultivated by the best education which the times could afford and though we have no particular account transmitted to us of his studies, it would seem they were not entirely confined to the profession which he followed, but extended to the general circle of science. Such was his knowledge of physic that his cures were often considered as Ting partially miraculous.

But a still more striking part of Columba's character was his early, uniform, and strong spirit of deep piety. Devoted from his birth to the service of God, and evidently bent on the pursuit of holiness, he seems to have reached the goal before others think of starting in the race. Far from resting in any measure of sanctity acquired in early life, he laboured often to gain still higher and higher degrees of it even to his latest day.

Next to the salvation of souls, the object which most engaged the heart of Columba was charity. Saint Mobith, who had just built a church, brought Saint Cairan, Saint Kenneth, and Saint Columba to see it, and desired each of them to say with what things he would have it filled, if he had the accomplish- meet of his wish. Cairan, who spoke first, said he would wish to have it filled with holy men ardently engaged in celebrating the praises of God. Kenneth said, his wish would be to have it filled with sacred books, which should be read by many teachers, who would instruct multitudes, and stir them up to the service of God. And I, said Columba, would wish to have it filled with silver and gold, as a fund for erecting monasteries, and churches, and colleges, and for relieving the necessities of the poor and needy.

It is a curious fact in ancient Scottish ecclesiastical hitory, though not so generally known as it deserves, that a large body of pastors and people from this island and other mountains of Scotland, like the ancient Waldenses among the Alps and valleys of Piedmont, maintained, at an early period, the true worship of God in its native simplicity, and preached the gospel in its purity for ninny generations, when it was greatly corrupted in other places. A change much to the worse began to take place amongst them about the beginning of the ninth century, when almost all the men of Ions were destroyed or dispersed by the Danish freebooters, and when those misfortunes commenced which afterwards endured for ages. Society was greatly unhinged by war, anarchy, and desolation, and a seminary in such a state could not be expected to stand the shock of such revolutions. Yet some of the good seed seems to have been still preserved and propagated in the country by the ancient Culdees, who sprung from the schools and seminaries of Columba. Let us now turn our attention for a little to the closing scene of Columba's long and useful life.

A few weeks previous to his death, he went out along with his faithful Christian servant Dermit, and entering the barn, where he saw two heaps of corn, he expressed great satisfaction, and thanked God, whose bounty had thus provided a sufficiency of bread for his dear monks in this year in which he was finally to leave them. "During this year," said Dermit, wiping his eyes, "you have made us all sad by the mention of your death." "Yes, Dermit," said the holy Saint, "but I will now be more explicit with you, on condition that you promise to keep what I tell you a secret till I die." Dermit promised to do so, and the Saint went on. "This day, in the sacred volume, is called 'the Sabbath '—that is 'rest'—and it will be indeed a Sabbath of rest to me, for it is to me the last day of this toilsome life—the day on which I am to rest from all my labour and trouble for on this sacred night of the Lord, at the midnight hour, I go the way of my fathers?' Dennit then wept bitterly, and the Saint administered to him all the consolation in his power.After a little time, Dermit being somewhat composed, they left the barn. Columba afterwards ascended a little eminence on the island, immediately above his monastery, where he stood, and lifting both his eyes and hands to heaven, prayed God to bless and prosper it. He then went to evening service in the church, and, after coming home, sat down on his bed, and gave it in charge to Dermit to deliver the following to his disciples as his last words:-" My dying charge to you, my dear children, is, that you all live in peace, and sincerely love one another and if you do this, as becometh saints, the God who comforts and upholds the good will help you and now that I am going to dwell with him, will request that you may both have a sufficient supply of the necessaries of the present transitory life, and a share in that everlasting bliss which he has prepared fQr those who observe his laws."

After this he rested or remained quiet till the bell was rung for prayers, at the hour of midnight, which was the general practice of Christians in very early ages. Hastily rising and going to the church, he arrived there before any other, and kneeled down before the altar to pray. When Dermit, who did not walk or run so quick, approached the church, he perceived it—as did others—all illuminated, and as it were filled with a heavenly glory or angelic light, which, on his entering the door, immediately vanished upon which Dermit cried with a mournful voice—O, my father, where art thou!! My father, where art thou!! and groping, without waiting for lamps, found the Saint lying before the altar in a praying posture. Dermit, attempting to raise him up a little, sat beside him, supporting the Saint's head upon his bosom, till lights came in. When the brethren saw their father dying, they raised all at once a very doleful cry. Upon this the Saint, whose soul had not yet departed, lifted up his eyes and—as Adomnan, his biographer, relates—looked around him with inexpressible cheerfulness and joy of countenance, seeing no doubt the holy angels come to meet his departing spirit. He then attempted, with Dermit's assistance, to raise his right hand to bless the monks, who were then all about him but his voice having failed, he made with his hand alone the motion which he used in pronouncing his usual benediction: after which heimme- diately breathed out his spirit, still retaining some tranquil smiles. By the brightness and the fresh look of his countenance, he had not the least appearance of one who was dead, but only sleeping. After the spirit had departed, and when the morning hymns were ended, the sacred body was carried from the church to the house of the brethren, amidst the loud singing of psalms and three days and three nights were spent in the sweet praises of God. "The venerable body of our holy and blessed patron," says Adomnan, "was wrapped in fair linen sheets, and put into a coffin prepared for it, and was buried with all due respect, to rise as a luminary in eternal glory on the day of the resurrection. Such was the close of our venerable patron's life, who is now, according to the Scriptures, associated with the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, and thousands of saints, who are clothed in white robes washed in the blood of the Lamb, and who follow him whithersoever he goeth. Such was the grace vouchsafed to his pure and spotless soul by Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with the Father and Holy Spirit, be honour and power, praise and glory, and eternal dominion, for ever and ever."

Thus, on the 9th of June, 597, and in the seventy-seventh year of his age, died Columba, the Christian Apostle of Iona a man whose extraordinary piety and usefulness,—accompanied with a perpetual serenity of mind, cheerfulness of countenance, simplicity of manners, benevolence of heart, and sweetness of disposition,—have deservedly raised him to the first rank of saints and holy men. His life, so zealously devoted to the cause and spread of early Christianity, was very singular and the extent of his usefulness, and the happy results of his labours and exertions, will remain hid till the judgment of the great day unfold them.

Adomnan gives a beautiful and classical description of two ora or dinary visions, which he says had been seen on the night on which Columba died. One of them by a holy man in Ireland, who told to his friends next morning that he had a vision through the previous night, declaring that Columba was dead and the other by a number of fishermen, who had been that night fishing on a loch called Glenfende, from some of whom Adomnan had the relation when he was a boy. The purport of it was—" That on the night and hour on which Columba, the founder of so many churches, had departed, a pillar of fire, which illuminated all the sky with a light brighter than that of the mid-day sun, was seen to arise from Iona, while loud and sweet sounding anthems of innumerable choirs of angels ascending with his soul were distinctly heard, and that when this column reached the heavens the darkness again returned, as if the sun had suddenly set at noonday."

Such lively pictures of the religious opinions of former times will not displease the antiquary, nor appear insignificant to the good and the pious. The cold sceptic may perhaps smile at the credulity of former ages, but credulity is more favourable to the happiness of man and to the interests of society than scepticism. In the history of all ages and nations, we read of some such extraordinary appearances in certain stages of society shall we then refuse all credit to human testimony, or shall we allow that a kind Providence may have adapted itself to the dark state of society, and given such visible and striking proofs of the connection and communication between this world and a world of spirits, as may be properly withheld from more enlightened times, which may need them less, and perhaps less deserve them. Adomnan remarks, that even in his time a heavenly light and manifestation of angels was frequently seen on Iona at Columba's grave.

These latter remarks remind me much of a visit paid to the island of Icolumbkill, or Iona, in the year 1825, by the late Rev. Leigh Richmond, Rector of Turvey, in Bedfordshire, as recorded in his memoirs:—On that occasion he met with upwards of two hundred children, and addressed them and their parents, through the medium of a Gaelic interpreter, on their eternal interests. Before leaving the island, however, he ordered a kind of feast to be prepared for the children on the grassy banks of the sea-shore, for there was no house large enough to contain them on the island. The principal dish at this singular juvenile banquet was the fattest sheep that could be procured on the island, value 68. and two lambs at Is. each and, for lack of eating implements, the children selected fine shells from the sea-shore to supply the deieney of knives and forks. The following beautiful hymn was composed by the reverend gentleman, and sung on the occasion:-

The revolution of ages hurries on imperceptibly, with almost the rapidity of lightning. While our eyes scan over the pages of past history, we are apt to heave an involuntary sigh over the ruins of time, the ravages of death, and the desolations of empires. Where are now the Persian, the Assyrian, and the Roman empires? Where is Tyre, and Nineveh, and Babylon? Where are the ancient cities of Baalbeck, Tadmor in the Desert, and Palmyra ?—supposed to be built by Solomon—the ruins of whose gorgeous buildings appear to have exceeded his famed Temple of Jerusalem. The answer i&-they have all perished in the wreck of ages. The ploughshare of time has erased even their very foundations and no trace of them is now to be found, but some huge pillars and broken columns and capitals strewn along the Palmyrian desert. Such is the history of the empires and cities of our globe. And in a few centuries hence where shall populous London, Empress of the Thames, be found ?—or commercial Glasgow, Queen of the far-famed Clyde? Their names, indeed, may be inscribed on the page of history by the pen of the historian but there will not be found, amongst their present stately buildings, " one stone Left on another that shall not be thrown down." Not only empires and cities are doomed to decay and ruin, to destruction and oblivion, but the fair fabric of this vast universe itself is rapidly hastening to a final end. Ja,


Chronology

1703 The Maryland Assembly grants Scottish immigrant Ninian Beall a tract of 795 acres for his services “[against] all incursions and disturbances of neighboring Indians.” Beall names the property “Rock of Dumbarton,” after the distinctive geologic feature near Glasgow in his native Scotland.

1717 Ninian Beall dies and the property descends in the family.

1751 The Maryland Legislature charters a new town, named George-Town, that includes part of the original Rock of Dumbarton.

Rock of Dumbarton

1796 Thomas Beall, grandson of Ninian, sells approximately four acres of his inheritance (where Dumbarton House now stands) to Peter Casenave, mayor of Georgetown. After two months, Casenave sells to General Uriah Forrest for 20 percent more.

1797 Forrest sells to Isaac Polack for five times what he paid for it.

1798 Polack sells to Samuel Jackson, a merchant from Philadelphia, for less than half what he paid.

1799 Jackson builds a large “two-story brick house with a passage through the center, four rooms on a floor and good cellars” just before our nation’s capital is moved from Philadelphia to Washington. Jackson mortgages the property.

1804 The United States, having acquired the mortgage, sells the property at public auction. Joseph Nourse purchases the property for $8,581.67 as a home for his family.

1813 Nourse sells the property to Charles Carroll, a cousin of the signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll names the house Bellevue, after his former plantation near Hagerstown, Maryland.

1814 On August 24, Charles Carroll, at President James Madison’s request, goes to the president’s house to urge Dolley Madison to leave, as the Americans are retreating from Bladensburg and the British will soon be entering Washington. Dolley, together with Eleanor Jones, wife of the Secretary of the Navy, flees to Carroll’s Bellevue, before going to Virginia to meet Madison.

1815 Carroll vacates Bellevue and over the course of the next 26 years it is occupied by a succession of tenants.

1841 Charles Carroll’s heirs sell the house.

1915 Bellevue is moved about 100 feet to the north. The house had always been located in the middle of today’s Q Street. With the construction of the Dumbarton Bridge connecting Q Street in Washington and Georgetown, however, it was decided that that street should also be made continuous within Georgetown. To avoid demolishing the unfortunately located Bellevue, the house was moved out of the way to its present site.

1928 The National Society of The Colonial Dames of America purchases the property.

1932 The property opens as Dumbarton House, a Federal period historic house museum and headquarters of The National Society, following restoration of its Federal character under the direction of Horace Peaslee, second vice president of the American Institute of Architects, and nationally renowned architectural historian Fiske Kimball.


History Lessons

Restoration of the North Garden Niche

Preservation requires understanding the history and construction of the object or structure being preserved if it is to be done correctly. If not careful, our …

The Hidden Figures of Dumbarton House: Slavery and Servitude within the Nourse family Household

For over a decade interns, volunteers, and staff at Dumbarton House have been researching the question—did the Nourse family have any enslaved workers or indentured …

Digitizing the NSCDA Archives

By Cheyenne Laux, Archives Intern October-December 2020 A small historic house museum, Dumbarton House has been the headquarters of the National Society of The Colonial …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Globe Amaranth

Gomphrena Globosa Globe amaranth, scientifically known as gomphrena globosa, is native to South and Central America and is a member of the Amaranthaceous family. It is …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Japanese Cedar

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Yoshino’ The Japanese Cedar is native to forested areas in Japan and China and is a species in the Redwood family. The foliage …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Japanese Snowbell

Styrax japonicus Japanese Snowbell is native to China and Japan. It is a graceful, compact, deciduous flowering tree that grows to 20-30 feet tall with …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Chaste Tree

Vitex agnus castus The Chaste Tree is a native of China and India but has become naturalized throughout the South. Peter Henderson, an early American …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Scholar Tree, Pagoda Tree

Sophora japonica Sophora japonica is native to China and Korea, but not Japan. The common name, Pagoda Tree, recognizes the early use of the tree in …


Dumbarton - History

Sailing up the Clyde towards Glasgow there is a vast and imposing sentinel guarding the river at Dumbarton. As a fortress it has a long and proud history, and, in fact, has a longer recorded history than any other in Britain.

The rock was the centre of the Kingdom of the Britons, that stretched along the River Clyde, north into Stirlingshire and south into Ayrshire. Known as Dun Breatann - ‘Fortress of the Britons’ or 'Alt Clut' (Rock of the Clyde). It was the centre of a flourishing Britonnic culture that spoke Old Welsh, or Cumbric, which is now almost entirely forgotten.

Dumbarton Rock Factsheet

    Dumbarton Rock enters history in the mid 5th century with a letter of complaint from St Patrick to Coroticus, King of the Britons, telling him to stop kidnapping Christians and selling them into slavery.

Olaf and his brother Ivarr laid siege to the formidable rock fortress of Dumbarton. For four months the starving Britons held out, until the true death blow - the fortress’s well dried up. At that point the Vikings broke in, plundering the kingdom of its treasures and taking a ‘great host’ of Britons to Ireland as slaves on a fleet of 200 ships. The taking of Dumbarton was a terrific achievement: Olaf was famed in Icelandic Sagas as the ‘greatest warrior-king in the Western Sea’. As was normal in the dark Ages, Olaf’s luck didn’t hold. Within a year he was dead, probably killed at the hands of Constantine I, King of Pictland.


The Kingdom of the Britons

Sailing up the Clyde towards Glasgow there is a vast and imposing sentinel guarding the river at Dumbarton. As a fortress Dumbarton Rock has a long and proud history, and, in fact, has a longer recorded history than any other in Britain.

The Kingdom of the Britons stretched along the River Clyde, north into Stirlingshire and south into Ayrshire. Dumbarton Rock, known as Dun Breatann - 'Fortress of the Britons' or 'Alt Clut' (Rock of the Clyde), was the stronghold of the Strathclyde Britons and a flourishing centre of a Britonnic culture that spoke Old Welsh, or Cumbric - a language now almost entirely forgotten.

De Adobe Flash player og Javascript are required in order to view a video which appears on this page. You may wish to download the Adobe Flash player.

Dumbarton Rock enters history in the mid 5th century with a letter of complaint from St Patrick to Coroticus, King of the Britons, telling him to stop kidnapping Christians and selling them into slavery.

A fascinating account of the Britonnic Scots is provided by Scotland's earliest poetry. 'The Gododdin', written by the Welsh bard Aneirin, tells the tale of a disastrous raid by the warband of the Britons of Edinburgh on the Angles, revelling in their deeds and mourning the loss of so many fine warriors.

By the mid 7th century only Dumbarton, of all the Britonnic Kingdoms of Scotland, had survived the Angles' onslaught. This has left us with the image of the Britons as doomed, heroic losers of the Dark Ages - an image depicted by their own poetry and their seemingly hopeless strategic position, trapped between the powerful Picts to the north and the Angles to the south. However, this is a mistaken image. The Britons were perfectly capable of defeating even the mightiest of their opponents.

For most of the 9th century Dumbarton seems to have avoided the worst of the Viking attacks which ravaged Scotland, that is until 866 AD, when Olaf the White, the Norse King of Dublin, brought a raiding army to plunder Scotland.

Olaf was married to Aud the Deep-minded, whose family controlled the Hebrides, and it seems likely that many Hebridean Vikings joined Olaf's army. For three years Olaf's army wreaked havoc, plundering and extorting money from Picts and Britons alike.

In 869 AD the Britons must have breathed a sigh of relief when Olaf returned to Ireland to curb Irish attacks on Viking Dublin. Never the less, Olaf swiftly returned to achieve one of his greatest feats.

Olaf and his brother Ivarr laid siege to the formidable rock fortress of Dumbarton. For four months the starving Britons held out, until the true death blow - the fortress's well dried up. At that point the Vikings broke in, plundering the kingdom of its treasures and taking a 'great host' of Britons to Ireland as slaves on a fleet of 200 ships.

The taking of Dumbarton was a terrific achievement: Olaf was famed in Icelandic Sagas as the "greatest warrior-king in the Western Sea". As was normal in the dark Ages, Olaf's luck didn't hold. Within a year he was dead, probably killed at the hands of Constantine I, King of Pictland.

For the Britons worse was to follow. Their king, Artgal, had escaped Dumbarton's destruction, perhaps fleeing to the seeming safety of Pictland but there he too met his end, slain, it was said, 'on the counsel of Constantine'.

It was the end of the road for the Kingdom of Dumbarton but not for the Britons as a people. A new kingdom, further up the river, 'Strathclyde', would soon emerge.

It stretched along the Clyde valley and from Govan in Glasgow down to Penrith in Cumbria. Its royal centre was at Cadzow, near Hamilton, with Partick, in Glasgow, serving as a royal hunting forest.

In 878 the Britons may have gained revenge on the house of MacAlpin when Eochaid, son of Rhun, and his foster father, Giric, forced the house of MacAlpin from the Kingship of Pictland, however, in 889 they returned and expelled Giric and Eochaid.

De Adobe Flash player og Javascript are required in order to view a video which appears on this page. You may wish to download the Adobe Flash player.

For the Britons this may have been a disaster. The following year, Welsh sources note, the men of Strathclyde who didn't accept the new order, went into exile and settled in Gwynedd (or Wales). Following this exodus, Strathclyde seems to have become a sub-kingdom of the new Pictish and Gaelic Kingdom of Alba, with its royal line related to the Kings of Alba.

De Adobe Flash player og Javascript are required in order to view a video which appears on this page. You may wish to download the Adobe Flash player.

The last king of Strathclyde, Owein the Bald, died fighting for Malcolm II, King of Alba, at the Battle of Carham.


Dumbarton Oaks Conference

Våre redaktører vil gå gjennom det du har sendt inn og avgjøre om artikkelen skal revideres.

Dumbarton Oaks Conference, (August 21–October 7, 1944), meeting at Dumbarton Oaks, a mansion in Georgetown, Washington, D.C., where representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom formulated proposals for a world organization that became the basis for the United Nations.

This conference constituted the first important step taken to carry out paragraph 4 of the Moscow Declaration of 1943, which recognized the need for a postwar international organization to succeed the League of Nations. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals (Proposals for the Establishment of a General International Organization) did not furnish a complete blueprint for the United Nations. They failed to provide an agreed arrangement on such crucial questions as the voting system of the proposed Security Council and the membership provisions for the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. These issues were resolved at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, which also resulted in the proposal of a trusteeship system under the new agency to take the place of the League of Nations mandate system (se Trusteeship Council). The proposals, as thus supplemented, formed the basis of negotiations at the San Francisco Conference, out of which came the Charter of the United Nations in 1945.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan, Senior Editor.


Se videoen: Glenn Gould - Stravinsky, LHistoire du soldat OFFICIAL (Juli 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Addy

    Rather useful piece

  2. Tera

    I'm sorry, but, in my opinion, mistakes are made. Write to me in PM, it talks to you.

  3. Johanan

    Det virker for meg som om dette allerede er diskutert.

  4. Gehard

    Excuse for that I interfere... I understand this question. Is ready to help.

  5. Maxfield

    Jeg tror du ikke har rett. Skriv i PM.



Skrive en melding